Chihuahua

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Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

The history of the Chihuahua breed is shrouded in many mysteries. Many scientists agree that these dogs originated in the days of the ancient Aztecs. Regarding the origin of Chihuahua, here there are many theories, many of which are directly still fantastic.

One of these theories is the theory of cosmic origin. Some dog experts believe that the Chihuahua came to us from outer space with ships of extraterrestrial civilizations, and now are watching us and transmit data using the energy due to their home. The same theory, scientists explain the small notch on the head of a dog that never heals.

This legend of the breed do not end. Many scientists argue that the well-developed fingers in ancient times, allowed Chihuahua effectively move through the trees. At the moment, they are also nice to use the original structure of their feet, but less successfully than their ancestors.

Yet the most plausible theory is the theory related to the fact that small dogs, who were the ancestors of the Chihuahua, tamed the ancient Indian tribes living in the territory of Mexico. Breed history stretches from ancient times, but the first documented mention of it date back to the IX century. Even then, those dog-chi-chi, as they were called Mayas and Aztecs, successfully co-existed with the tribes people. As the documents that give us some details about the species of those times, we can mention the well-preserved bas-relief on the stones of the monastery of St. Francis in Mexico. One of the paintings, carved on a wall, depicts a small dog, which a number of features scientists refer to Chihuahua.

The Aztecs used a special breed of honor. Afford such a dog could only wealthy people. And they were got, not as a beloved pet. Rich leads them to. For when they die, the dogs were buried with them. By then beliefs, it was thought that the Chihuahua absorb the sins of their masters, while facilitating their way to a place of eternal rest.

After the conquest of the Aztec invaders from Europe, observed a significant decrease in the number of species. The conquistadors did not feed the same love for the Chihuahua. These dogs were used as products.

Even Christopher Columbus himself in his notes mention unusual dogs, which are kept at the Cuban people. According to descriptions of these dogs they were much like today's Chihuahua. By the XVIII century, managed to find a few good representatives of the breed in the villages of Mexico, which is not far from the ruins of the Aztec city. Dogs that have been found to possess a peculiar hallmark of the breed a slight soft fontanel at the crown. Together with his long fingers, and small size can be judged from the fact that it was precisely the Chihuahua.

These small dogs found the first time in the Mexican outback Chihuahua. It is easy to guess that it is from this word was the name of the breed. Mexico has a lot of representatives of the breed was brought to the United States. Here they are actively developed by local breeders, who bled the Chihuahua as a base for breeding other breeds. A little later, the breed came to Europe.

By 1904, already formed rock-haired chihuahua dog brought in herd books. It was a step towards official recognition of the breed. After 19 years in 1923 it was formed the first breed standard and the public admirers.

Even closer to the 50-th years of the last century can be traced bedrock division into two lines - long-haired and hairless dogs. First dog with long thick hair appeared in 1954. It brought British breeders. To officially recognize the second line, the standard was revised and reissued.

To date, these cute dogs already conquered half the world. Chihuahuas are very popular in Canada, USA, Britain, Russia, and of course at home - in Latin America.

As for our country, the Chihuahua came here in 1959. A couple of dogs brought a delegation from Cuba. They were a gift Khrushchov. These dogs were transferred to a well-known nursery, where they began to actively bred. In subsequent years, these two dogs add 2 and a pair of purebred dog imported from different countries. It is on these dogs, built all the modern Russian rock.

The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the fact that import and export to a variety of imported goods much easier. This led to the fact that the Russian population of Chihuahua has increased significantly. But at the same time, each cattery and breed improvement in isolation, it is preserving information about the results of selection. Such fragmentation nowadays largely stops the process of further breeding.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

ORIGIN: Mexico
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL STANDARD: 28.07.2009
UTILIZATION: Companion Dog
CLASSIFICATION FCI: Group-9: Companion and miniature dogs. Section 6: Chihuahua. Without working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Chihuahua is regarded as the smallest pedigree dog in the world and carries the name of the largest state of the Mexican Republic (Chihuahua). It is assumed that these dogs live in the wild, and in the days of the Toltec civilization, were captured and domesticated by the natives. Images of a small dog called "Tetichi" and lived in the settlement of Tula, were used as decoration of urban architecture. These sculptures are very similar to the present day Chihuahua.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: This dog has a compact body. It is very important to her skull had yablokoobraznuyu shape and that she was carrying his moderately long tail very high, either curved or in a semicircle with the tip pointing towards the loin.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Length of body slightly greater than height at the withers. However desirable an almost square body, especially in males. In bitches, because of their reproductive function, longer body is permitted.
CHARACTER / BEHAVIOUR: Quick, alert, lively and very courageous.
HEAD
CRANIAL
Skull: Well rounded apple head (a characteristic of the breed).
Transition from forehead Stop: Well marked, deep and broad as the forehead is rounded above the base of the muzzle.
FACIAL
Nose: Any color is acceptable. Moderately short, slightly upturned.
Muzzle: Short, seen from side, broad at the base, tapering to the nose.
Lips: Dry, tight.
Cheeks: Moderately developed, very dry.
Jaws / Teeth: Nnozhnitseobrazny or bite. Overshot, undershot, as well as any other anomaly in position of upper or lower jaw must be strictly penalized.
Eyes: Large, roundish in shape, very expressive, not protruding, perfectly dark. Light eyes are permitted but are not desirable.
Ears: Large, upright, widely open, broad at the base, gradually tapering towards their slightly rounded tips. At rest hung, forming an angle of 45 °.
NECK: Topline slightly arched neck. Medium length. More volume in males than in females. Without suspension. In the long haired variety, the presence of the collar with longer hair is highly desirable.
BODY: Compact and well built.
Topline: Smooth.
Withers: Slightly pronounced.
Back: Short and strong.
Loin: Strongly muscled.
Croup: Broad and strong; almost flat or slightly sloping.
Chest: Ribcage broad and deep, ribs well sprung. Seen from the front is wide, but not excessively. When viewed from the side, reaching to elbows. But it is not barrel-shaped.
Underline and Belly: Drawn clearly chosen the stomach. Slack belly is permitted but not desired.
TAIL: Set on high, flat in appearance, of moderate length, thick at the base, tapering gradually to the tip. Tail carriage - an important characteristic of the breed: when the dog is moving, it keeps a high bending or curved in a semicircle with tip towards the lumbar region, which gives balance to the body. The movement of the tail should never be located between the rear legs or curled below the backline. The hair on the tail depends on the variety of the dog's coat, and must comply with the body coat. In the long haired variety, the tail coat forms a plume. At rest, the tail lowered and slightly bent.
LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS: Forelegs straight and of good length, when viewed from the front, they form together with the elbows straight line. When viewed from the side, they are upright.
Shoulders: Well muscled and moderately folded. Good angulation between shoulder-blade and shoulder.
ELBOW: Strong and pressed against the body which ensures free movement.
Pasterns: Slightly sloping, strong and flexible.
Front feet: Very small and oval with well apart but not splayed fingers (neither hare nor cat). Nails particularly well-rounded and moderately long. Pads well developed and very elastic. The dewclaws are undesirable.
HINDQUARTERS: Hindlegs well muscled with long bones, vertical and parallel to each other with good angulation at hip, knee and hock joints, in harmony with angulation of the front legs.
Hocks: Short with well developed Achilles' tendons. Viewed from the rear, they are straight and placed vertically.
Hind feet: Very small and oval with well apart but not splayed fingers (neither hare nor cat). Nails particularly well-rounded and moderately long. Pads well developed and very elastic. The dewclaws are undesirable.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: Sweeping, springy, energetic and active with good reach and drive. Viewed from behind, the hind legs should move almost parallel to each other so that traces of hind paws were placed exactly in the tracks of the front legs. With increasing speed, the limbs show a tendency of convergence to the center line (single track). Movement remains free and springy without visible effort, head raised and back is strong.
SKIN: Smooth and elastic all over body.
COAT
HAIR: In this breed there are two varieties of coat.
Smooth-haired: short, lying close all over body. If there is an undercoat, the hair is somewhat longer; sparse coat on throat and belly permissible; longer on neck and tail, short on face and ears. Coat is glossy and its texture is soft. Hairless dogs are not allowed.
Long-haired: Coat should be soft and silky, straight or slightly wavy. Not too thick undercoat desired. Coat is longer, forming adorning the hair on the ears, neck, rear of front and hind legs, paws and tail. Dogs with very long hair billowing unacceptable.
COLOUR: All colors are acceptable in all possible shades and combinations, except for merle.
SIZE AND WEIGHT: In this breed only the weight is taken into account, not growth.
WEIGHT: Ideal weight between 1.5 and 3 kg. Dogs weighing less than 500 gr and more than 3 kg shall be disqualified.
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be regarded as a disadvantage. The extent of the lack of considered, depending on the impact on the health and welfare of the dog.
- Absence of teeth;
- Double teeth (permanent or temporary);
- Pointed ears;
- Short neck;
- Long body;
- Roach or hollow back (lordosis or kyphosis);
- Croup;
- Narrow chest, flat chest;
- Improperly planted, short or twisted tail;
- Short limbs;
- Out at elbow
- Too close hindquarters.
SERIOUS FAULTS:
- Narrow skull;
- Small, deep set or protruding eyes;
- Long snout;
- Undershot or overshot;
- Unstable breathing.
ELIMINATING FAULTS:
- Aggressive or overly shy character;
- Olenepodobnye dogs (with an atypical or extremely exaggerated structure, very light head, long neck, a light body, long limbs);
- Dogs with an open fontanel;
- Hanging or short ears;
- Deformed jaw;
- Extremely long body;
- Absence of tail;
- In the long haired variety: too long, lush hair and uplifting;
- At the smooth-haired variety: alopecia;
- Merle;
- Dogs weighing less than 500 gr and more than 3 kg;
- Any dog ​​clearly showing physical or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Note: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Character

Характер: 

This, perhaps, is the smallest member of the dog world, rightfully gaining more and more fans around the world. After all, his greyhound quality inversely proportional to its razmeram.Nigde in the world you will not find a dog weighing from 500g, but at the same time brave and dedicated as a huge dog. His love and dedication is so boundless that Chihuashki are the best companions not only young naglamurennyh ladies, but also the children, their parents, and for older people are more accommodating and undemanding friend, perhaps, you will not find.

Despite its tiny size (500g - 3kg), Chihuahua is a real dog. And even if it is just sitting on their hands the host, do not underestimate it belongs to the dog, do not tease them, because they may bite. This is a very confident dog who, at the slightest danger to the host, will protect it from its enemies, whether it be a cat or another dog. Brave kid always be on the alert, he never lets his master out of sight. Dog very alert for any danger and she never panics, but at the same time can provoke aggression of a larger dog (and for all dogs large Chihuashek).

Chihuahuas are very loyal dog. They immediately choose a host, and it will be only one of all the family members. If the baby has chosen you, then it will only be your dog! And no one else. They are very jealous if their favorite host suddenly pays attention to someone other than them. She will win his position in the family, because it considers itself a full-fledged member of this family. If you already have or a dog (again, for Chihuashki no matter what it will be the size) or cat (cat), it is still with the times, small Chihua will defend its legitimate right to be the dominant favorite and no one else, I will not be able to sleep on your bed or lying on master's slippers.

This is the most that neither has kompanonskaya dog, it just always and everywhere, you can take with you, thanks to its small dimensions, you can take it easy on the hands and it will feel great and can transfer it in a special bag-carrying, it's just perfect for sightseeing, shopping, and any other travel. This kid is always somewhere here. If Chihua does not lie on your lap, so he's somewhere near, for example, it turns under the heel. They simply created in order to always be close to the master, wherever that is not brought.

Chihuahua dog is very fragile, Mercator will not only give you my love, attention and devotion, and require the same of you. And it will require in any way possible, if only you drew my attention to it. Dog very attached to its owner, it will literally walk up to you on the heels. Devotees baby You just will not find, because you are all for it. Chihuahua is very vulnerable and at the same time proud dog. She patiently accept punishment for offense and never will do so, but if you are on the kid for narugalis than nothing, it always on you will be offended and will continue to sit in his house unhappily. And now he himself will decide when you forgive.

Chihuahuas are very energetic, mobile, at the same time obedient and loyal kids. Once taking Chihuashku hand, you will not want to part with him ever. This is the most that either there is a small but very noble creature, which can not leave indifferent any connoisseur of these dogs.

Care and maintenance

Our pets, despite the fact that they can serve as a reliable protection from the encroachments of evil people and circumstances, in turn, are very vulnerable and are easily attacked by disease, ticks and other blood-sucking organisms. And we, as their older companions and comrades, to help them cope with the advancing danger, make caring for the favorite of the most convenient for you and for him.

Due to the small size of the dog, care for the Chihuahua is not particularly difficult. First you need to go to the store for dogs and buy two bowls stainless steel stand that baby was convenient to eat and bowl does not slip on the floor. Plastic bowls are easily damaged because puppies like to chew on them. Water can be purchased special drinkers. There must be a container in which to prepare food for a friend on four paws.

You also need to purchase a "dowry" your pet: a sofa, where she will sleep, personal toilet, she would sometimes attend, particularly in infancy, too frosty or rainy weather. The dowry also include clothes for all seasons. Acquire a collar, leash or harness, ringovki and toys, cosmetics and bath accessories, including a comb, scissors for trimming claws or gilotinku, shampoos, liquid, including flea and dry for dry-cleaning wool.

Caring for a Chihuahua puppy

For the puppy need to prepare in advance and eye and ear and nose, aerosols, powders, ointments and oil from wounds scratches, burns and other skin diseases. The pet care oral sell special toothpastes for dogs (possible child), brush or brush worn on the finger for easy cleaning teeth puppy.

Bathe chihuahua puppies as severe pollution, the less the better, as the pH of the skin they do not like people. With frequent bath treatment the skin becomes dry and can cause dandruff and coat loses shine. In addition, the protective film skin is lost, and it will be subjected to skin diseases.

Long-haired dogs need to comb that the undercoat is not formed mats. Smooth dog shed just like all the rest of the dog breeds: boys - once a season, and the girls - twice a year. Girls lose their hair during the season and after feeding the puppies. Shorthaired dogs should be brushed with a fine comb and brush special brush, worn on the arm. This will help protect domestic sofas and chairs from small and short hairs of the dog.

Wash, cut, obstriganie claws and not only to care for Chihuahua

Chihuahua lap dog, but requires daily vygulivaniya. If walking is necessary to pay attention to weather conditions since Chishko hardly endures cold, this should take care of your pet's clothes.

Maintenance and care of the long-haired Chihuahua individuals require more frequent washing, but not more than three times a month, a special daily combing and shearing, at least once in six months. Wash process should be given its place, since everything from shampoo to select the appropriate water temperature is important.

Young puppies need to press the lugs when washing or embed tamponchiki cotton in his ears to protect them from water jets. Water in the ear can cause otitis media and other diseases. Special children's q-tip on the end, you can clean the ears, being careful not to push the applicator deep into the ear canal. Head with the need to adhere to. The applicator is inserted gently up easy stop and start easily rotate it around its axis, or the thumb and forefinger pressed against the wall of the ear to the applicator 2-3.

A warm shower, and then - drying is not hot hair dryer, like a dog, and as a result does not cause peeling of the skin or dandruff. Grooming is necessary to produce a plastic comb with long teeth for long-haired representatives, and standard - for short-haired dogs.

Your attention should be paid to care for legs Chihuahua. In the context of flat stitching kogtikov happening is minimal, so you need to take action. Ostriganie they need to make special tweezers reserved only for a specific dog. Most often the breeders of this breed is used for device the claws of cats. But be careful not to damage the subtle pulp. It is also recommended to provide care at the long-haired dogs and fur on the paws.

If grown too long claws Chihuahua, provides their content or pruning scissors gilotinkoy on the front legs, cutting mats between the toes and around the pads under the paw.

With frequent walks, especially in the green zone, the hind legs of the dog trying to scratch on the asphalt or soil, simulating burying their "dealings". Therefore shear claws on them is not necessary. When dealing with cats or brothers, playing in the grass Chihuahua can "dial" on wool fleas and ticks, so three days before bathing or three days after it is necessary to withers drip drops of fleas or use sprays against fleas, such as Bars or Franklaynom .

Regarding the choice of the collar or harness, then for a small dog better suited cat harness. If the walk will meet a stray dog ​​or aggressive purebred counterparts, then harness possible to raise the dog in his arms and protect the baby from the "giant." The material for the collar should not be hard and heavy, too long or too tight. Strongly pull the collar can not be, because you can break the neck vertebrae. Better fit leather or artificial soft material. Very easy to use leashes, tape measures with a good handle.

Carrying a Chihuahua is right for a small container or a soft carrying bag with a snake, and a small window leash secured inside the bag. For games pets need toys of safe material (such as silicon), the puppy could sharpen them their growing teeth, worn in the mouth. Toys should be large (long), the puppy could not swallow it. For the point of the teeth can be purchased dry bullish phalluses, they are "long-lasting" and easier to wash. Dry pork and beef ears given to dogs is not recommended because they still contain a lot of fat on the cartilage, often sold with outdated, inconsistent with purity (sometimes with traces of faeces of rodents: mice and rats, which are present on any stock). Such food can make an infection in the stomach puppy that often ends in failure.

Maintenance and care of the Chihuahua is not limited to these procedures. A frequent phenomenon is the occurrence of tartar. Therefore, such a hygienic operation as brushing your teeth with a special paste or powder, it is best designed for children, every day do a good job for your pet. If, nevertheless, the stone was formed, you should immediately contact your veterinarian to remove it and not to cause bleeding gums in a dog whenever you receive write.

These simple rules will help make the process of maintenance and care of Chihuahua hassle-free and comfortable.

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

Chihuahua - dog with a toy looks in need of education no less representative of any other breed. Sometimes, the owners of chihuahuas just do not know at what age may undergo training his crumbs. Some, especially the "patient" people are willing to wait up to two years, hoping Chihuahua "wiser", but there are no miracles. Finding nibbling slippers (furniture), pools (a handful of) anywhere, shrill yapping, tail between its legs in the ring and other problems, the owners shrug "How could this happen to their little treasure?".

Chihuahua is great to train, if desired, and certain skills you can teach the dog any type of dressage (obedience course, general course of training, sports training, and exhibit even protective guard course). The order of learning Chihuahua elementary commands from the general course of training dogs ("me", "fu", "no", "sit", "down", "apports", "give", etc.) detailed in various online - publications canine subjects. It is important to realize that this knowledge requires the dog to consolidate and repetition, that skill is not lost. Chihuahua - companion dog, therefore, taming and general sentry drill in her life is not useful, but the basics of obedience, cleanliness and behavior in the ring - is what is waiting for his master dog. But without it, the owner's participation and perseverance nothing happens.

When it is necessary to begin to train a Chihuahua? The answer is simple - as soon as you have a little dog came home. Puppy - Chihuahua quickly adapted to the new pack (host family), quickly at the crumbs are formed patterns of behavior. The owner must be initially clearly defined priorities dog behavior. Nutrition and paddock "on time", forms Chihuahua positive habits, but feeding the pieces on the table and the lack of sanitary napkins in the usual place - reinforces the negative ... The main task in raising Chihuahuas - this is the formation of her character, devoid of addictions. Training grown-Chihuahua, knower of "joy" disobedience involves confrontation between the two characters (owner and dog). Impatience, clumsiness, inability trainer and aggression - the first reason that a dog can not learn the order of things. Holding Chihuahua dog training, you should be armed with infinite patience, steadfast composure and rigorous consistency in their actions.

So, determine the priorities of Conduct Chihuahua: "The fact that the dog will be allowed, when she grows up, what should be allowed and a puppy that will be prohibited adult animals should be banned and the puppy." Adult Chihuahua will not chew on furniture, barking hysterically "in blank" if she was not allowed to do in schenyachestve. The motivation of the dog's behavior is limited to two basic categories: pleasant - unpleasant. Positive skills are fixed regular repetition and enjoyable promotions. Obedience - a persistent positive habits of the dog, the formation of which - a task master. That just would not be overzealous in this formation. Time employment with chihuahua depends on the degree of attention to your dog commands, the number of "sticks" (pooschriteli-pieces) should not shoot down the appetite before the next feeding, and "whip" (rolled up a newspaper) is mandatory only at the moment of accomplishment of the offense.

What if a Chihuahua already "naughty" in your absence ... You came, you saw, the response must be instantaneous (after watching a Chihuahua). Exclamation of surprise mixed with indignation, "who did this?" Will convince the dog in her reckless actions, clear "insult" and "wailing" beloved master hesitate to make the little dog. Multiple active attacks newspaper on the floor next to the crime scene must convince a Chihuahua that "all" could get to her. Of course no game and the joy of meeting, "offended" and pointedly left. Dog - a thinking being, important to be consistent in its actions, not to give up the slack and actively express their approval and joy if chihuahua "did everything" right. Skills cleanliness easier to develop in a cage or in a limited space of the room, gradually expanding the boundaries of space as consolidate skills.

Chihuahua - often exhibit a dog. Exhibit taming means at dogs the ability to go to the exhibition collar and leash (for ring) in the ring, the suppression of manifestations of aggression in manual inspection, demonstration teams: "teeth" (featuring bite), "near" (when showing dogs in the ring), "stand" (in the description), and - a manifestation of "Charisma" (display style). The art of preparation for the exhibition and demonstration of the dog in the ring in dog breeding buzzword called "ground handling".

The ideal trainer for Chihuahua - is the owner of the dog, the leader in the family, and a man who knows how to raise animals in one. But not everything is so perfect ... Chihuahua actively "studying" the behavior of the host, soon facial expression, gestures and tone of voice, she correctly identifies your strengths and weaknesses ... For successful training "at home", the owner (oddly enough) you must "learn to think like a dog." That's when you and your Chihuahua reach mutual understanding!

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