Dachshund

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Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

The Dachshund, by its very nature, there is a very comical and unusual. Dogs of this breed are very friendly and get along well with children. This friendliness and kindness is clearly visible even in the eyes of these lovely dogs. Reflected in those eyes and an extraordinary mind breed. Dachshunds are very curious and intelligent. Each dog of this breed is able to express his emotions nearly as well as people. In addition, they have a unique character and even a sense of humor. Behind all these abilities seemed to have no place, and playfulness and fun. But here tax is not inferior to other species. Funny dog, even superficially look comical. Long body, large ears and a beautiful attractive face with huge eyes and cause a smile from any affection. But do not forget that the special nature of taxes makes them very proud. Unless the offense, they will remember for a long time and his actions may conflict with the offender.

In addition, Dachshund allocates boundless devotion to his master and his family. It is without any problem comes in contact with everyone. But the main condition - the permission of the owner.

With regard to the history of the breed, it is just full of blanks. So far there is no exact information about when it appeared taxes. Researchers agree only on what is the most ancient dog used for hunting in the burrows. It was found evidence that taxes as hunting dogs were used in the days of ancient Egypt. Small dog with a long body and short legs are depicted in many bas-reliefs of the time, not only in Egypt.

Regarding the origin of the breed controversy and maintained to this day. Many researchers are studying the issue, we concluded that the ancestors of today's dogs were dachshunds breed Bracco. These German hounds small sizes in the process of selection have become small dogs with small, crooked legs and long body. By this view, scientists have in the XIX century. Theories on the fact that Dachshund are the ancestors of the Beagle, found in earlier studies. There are descriptions of the XVIII century, which appears on its face clearly describe the breed. And if you look closely at some of the paintings of the XV century can be seen so that beagle traits resemble even more than the modern representatives of the breed.

Interesting is the name of the breed. The word "Dachshund" comes from the German «daksa», which in our language means "badger". This name is small, comical dog got through resemblance to these animals and hunting skills to successfully hunt in burrows, including badgers. Full name of the breed in Germany sounded like "dakskhaund" - "badger hound."

With regard to the original appearance of the breed, and it is not so simple. If we take the basis of the theory of reputable breeders. That grandparents taxes though they were small in size, but is fundamentally different from their heirs. It was a long-legged hounds who distinguished noble appearance. What then happened to the breed in the future. Of course, certain achievements of breeders in this process is. But still, the main role in the process of becoming badger hounds played chondrodystrophy disease, which led to the process of mutation. This disease is characterized by the fact that the extremities of living beings in the development process are reduced and distorted, moreover, that the body and the head remains the same size. Developing as an ordinary disease, this process has become the standard for all species.

In our country the rate began to emerge during the reign of Queen Anne (XVIII century). The representatives of the breed at that time, just incredible cost money. But overtake the popularity of fine hounds and greyhounds at the time, dachshunds did not happen. And until the XX century they have remained isolated pets lovers. By the year 1900 the situation has improved. Dogs have proven to be excellent hunters burrow, besides their vitality, agility and high intelligence is perfect for various competitions and exhibitions. At the beginning of the XX century opened the first Dachshund Club.

But despite all the advantages of the breed, often wound up Dachshund it is due to its unique appearance, as pets. These pets could boast quite a few famous people XIX - XX century. For example, the owner of two representatives of the breed was the great classical writers Chekhov. His dogs he described in many works. Especially Chekhov praised unprecedented intelligence and ingenuity pets, which is immensely admired.

Today the rate has taken its place of honor among other breeds. They are engaged in breeding, many dog ​​breeders worldwide. Many representatives of the breed have serious titles and awards won at the most famous exhibitions.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

The image of the modern Dachshund began to take shape and evolve in the middle of the last century. And in 1879, it was considered and adopted by the breed standard, which still exists today and has undergone minor changes only twice.

Standard is a description of the external parts, traits, productivity, as well as of the behavior of dogs and heredity. It is worth noting that the standard - it is not a description of a middle type of rock, and the ideal to which you constantly strive. But this does not mean that if you find any discrepancy with the standards, it will be a disadvantage and a sign of "nerodovitosti." It just means that your dog is individual, and such as it is, is no more.

Dachshund - a dog is the most original in the world. Her squat elongated torso stretched, but compact. Its backbone is very powerful, and relief muscles and dry. Posture proud and statuesque.

Growth. The height of the normal fee ranges from 27 to 20 cm. Depending on that, bitch or dog is. The height of the withers should not exceed the height at the croup. The length of the body - from 150 to 177 cm.

Color. Fees are:
One color. Red, reddish yellow, auburn, yellow. The most priority color - dark red. Claws and nose should be black.
Bicolor. Black and brown (coffee), rusty-brown with gray, gray with yellow spots in the eyes, on the neck, on both sides of the muzzle, paws and chest. In black dogs claws and nose black, in brown - coffee.

Spotted tiger and marble. The basic tone marble fees - reddish. Allowed gray, yellowish, brown, black spotting. The spots do not have to be large and to prevail over the main color.

Nose and nails black.
Wool. "The original form of" this dog Shorthaired. But the evolutionary transformation and development of selection led to a long-haired dachshunds. Today, there are 3 types of coat: smooth, long and hard. The most popular is the smooth-haired dachshund. They cover must be very short (no more than 1-2 cm) thick, a little harsh, shiny and tight to the body of the dog.

In the long-haired cover should be long, shiny, thick, very soft, straight, with undercoat and close to the body. Slightly longer coat should be in the neck, lower body, ears and back of the legs.

Wirehaired dachshund should have a thick, hard, tight-fitting cover. Uniform length, about 3 cm. The undercoat is very thick, and wool feels like a stubble.

The skin should be smooth, without folds and subcutaneous tissue, is very elastic. Developed muscles and relief. The standard does not allow for loose skin and soft muscles.
Head elongated shape is different, closer to the nose pointed. Clear lines and outlines, without irregularities and bumps, dry. Fees forehead slightly convex or flat at all, the transition to muzzle gradually and smoothly without pronounced fractures. Dog stand eyebrows that give her eyes a sensible and intelligent look. The nose is very large, which is typical for a hunting dog. Nostrils swollen like are in constant readiness to sniff traces of a predator in the forest. Lips should be well closed jaw.

Ears fees are slightly rounded at the ends, are lowered, their length should match the level of the nose. They are mobile and planted on the head quite high and far. They are soft, but not thick, their front side adheres to the cheek of the dog. The Standard eliminates the pointed, too small or too large, protruding ears.

Eyes are medium-sized, oval, and set slightly oblique. Expression from Dachshund altogether kindly and "thornless". Their eyes are always shining and full of friendliness. Although some color is in a dog, the eyes should be dark brown in color. Only the marble fees can "afford" or mottled shade of blue eyes. In the case of pure-bred pedigree dogs are not allowed yellow or green shades.

Teeth are smooth, tight to each other, white. Scissor bite jaws.

Chest Dachshunds are very powerful and strongly bulging, thus creating a shallow depression on both sides. The transition line of the chest to the stomach should be smooth and even.
The back is very long and straight without sagging smoothly into the lower back. Different muscular and dry. Avoid very slack or hump.

Front feet fees rather thick and powerful, but at the same time very short and slightly curved lines. The blades are very long and tight to the chest. The hindquarters are well muscled and boned, set wide apart and parallel to each other. Despite the fact that all four paws dachshund short and crooked, they are very powerful and strong. The pads on the feet thick, exactly assembled to each other, hard and thick nails.

Tail fees should be harmonious continuation of her torso. By length almost reaches the end of the paw. Its base is thick, and towards the end he sharpened.
The fee is strong and hardy, although its appearance is not always about "loudly."

Besides the fact that all Dachshund are divided into haired, longhaired and wirehaired, there are several varieties, determines the size of the dog.
Standard fees and "rabbits" and "dwarfs". Not all of these varieties have been created by nature. Their evolution depended on specialized hunting certain species of animals, who were hunted and the conditions under which hunting is carried out.

Breeders and breeders in Germany for a long time, repeated attempts to create the kind of miniature dachshunds that could easily hunt down the rabbit hole. Hunting rabbits - it is very difficult and takes a lot of time and effort. Just had to breed with short legs, which would feel free to down the rabbit hole and was able to drive out the rabbit, where people were waiting for him.

Rabbit Dachshund was the ideal solution to the problem of hunting rabbits. But it is worth noting that it required the removal of many years. It was difficult to cross breed necessary to create a small dog that will not lose the feeling of anger, aggression, excitement and passion of hunting in relation to their production.
Today, dwarf and rabbit dachshunds longer bred and kept as decorative pet.

There is also the Anglo-American type of Dachshund. But this kind does not meet global standards. Breeders from Britain brought this breed, taking into account only their own preferences and standards.

There is a taxi 3 different sizes:

  • standard - height at withers 20-27 cm, chest girth at least 35 cm, weight up to 9 kg
  • dwarf - 14-21 cm, chest aged not earlier than 15 months of 30-35 cm
  • rabbit - 10-15 cm, chest aged not earlier than 15 months up to 30 cm

The average life expectancy of 12-15 years Dachshund.

Character

Характер: 

Natura fees every minute radiates energy, activity, great diligence and curiosity. It is gambling, cunning and tireless. Legend has it that the fees are very stubborn creatures. This is partly true. But their stubbornness nothing else, as a consequence of its unsurpassed intelligence, independence. This stubborn trait inherent in their most "Mother Nature." After all, when they are in a hole, one on one with a badger or a fox, then wait for help from the person can not, therefore, have to rely on their own strength. At this point the dachshund should consider all so that the badger had not had the opportunity to leave the burrow until, until the hunter dig and will not reach production. Therefore stubbornness may be called integral quality, without which it is impossible to imagine fee.

This breed of dog is very discreet and prudent. She never will throw run the command master, without thinking, and it is correct. At this point, it seems that it gives the owner time for thinking and re-thinking the correctness of his decision. But if the thoughts and intents of the pet and its owner are the same, then it will obey without question and without regard to the will throw any command. Dachshund needs a good and smart master, and only so it will be responsive and obedient.

The fee is very intelligent, it is not necessary to repeat something many times. Also, it is unpretentious in the care and maintenance. The great merit of this - its cleanliness. She could take care of themselves on their own, but extra care is still no one interfered.

Modern hunting fee is very smart and hardy. If we talk about its intended purpose - hunting - that is its main quality becomes aggressive to production. Despite its small size and bizarre forms, is a vivid example of the brave hunter. Their courage allows them to rush into battle with the enemy, which is several times larger than their size, such as wild boar. But their main "field of activity" - the Norns hunting for foxes and badgers. The easiest for fees - it is hunting for raccoon dog. And in the case of the fox spirit and gambling Dachshund there is no limit. For her, it is a demonstration effect, because Fox is almost the same size with this dog, and will fight on equal terms.

Despite his aggression toward production, the rate is able to control their emotions, to be careful and cautious, sober assessment of the situation and its possibilities. Its' Crown Room "and a distinctive tactic during the hunt -" killer instinct. " It can keep a predator's neck or head for a long time, until the man pulled them out of the hole.

Despite its funny body and light weight, the rate is very mobile and active, it can be called eternal "little motor", which does not calm down for a minute. Going for it - this is the meaning of life. As for getting used to the new owner, here the process is almost instantaneous, but by the taxi owners should feel full reciprocity and love. Only in this case it can become a full and faithful pet. Taxi intimate and subtle spiritual contact with a person - it is a vital necessity. Ignoring her need for communication and development, you doom the dog to become aggressive, vindictive and sullen.

With its active "life position" representatives of this breed perfectly fit into a large family with children. But it should be noted that the small dachshund puppies are very sensitive and their psyche is still weak. First time in the house you need to create a warm and relaxed environment over, so as not to break the personality of a puppy. It is important to allocate a greater attention, warmth and care.

Care and maintenance

The very appearance of the fees, its small size suggests that the problems with the maintenance and care will not. It can contain both the apartment and a country house. But, of course, any animal would be best in the wild. Taxis are not an exception, it is very mobile and inquisitive, so if you decide to bring the flat fee, then you need to take care of the daily walk. They are so compact, that may well be the "mobile" if you are thinking of a trip or to the country.

Special care does not require a fee, but there is something for which you must follow very closely, carefully and regularly - it's their health. After all, they are sick from birth until the end of his days. Their disease has a genetic inheritance, and there's no getting around it. Proper care of their health - is the timely development and strengthening of the muscles of the back and limbs. To do this, take a walk to the rugged terrain, as well as swim.

Active outdoor exercise will promote good circulation and strengthening of all muscle groups, as it will help keep your appetite and provide a good night's sleep. Keep in mind that this breed pets is necessary from the very young age accustomed to walk with a collar and leash. This leash has to be stretched, it is necessary for good posture. It will also help develop the discipline and diligent character. In no case should not risk the health of its fees and to walk in the rain or slush.

For the health of fees must be treated gently and carefully, to avoid unnecessary stress and injury. The problem with the spine can cause obesity and banal jumping upright. Avid taksyatniki know that the most common disease with the sad consequences - a loss or displacement of the intervertebral disc (discopathy). Extend healthy and happy life, you can only if you properly care for a taxi and pay attention to her mood and behavior.

Question molting can also be attributed to the peculiarities of care and maintenance fees. Although some kind of rock you choose (long-haired or Smooth) moult all species occur in the same time and takes almost the same. Active molt, which can deliver unpleasant chores, begins in the spring. In the fall rate "resets" the old fur little calmer. During this period, it is best to use a brush or lint-special mittens, as well as several times a day with wet hands to hold throughout the body fee in order to get rid of fallen hairs.

Bathing fee is not recommended too often. More precisely, no more than 2 times a year. The fee is considered one of the most cleanly dogs, she carefully watches his hygiene. The frequent water treatments can harm her health. But it is not uncommon for small puppies or even adult fee may specifically izvalyalsya in the mud or even in their own excrement (this behavior is caused by natural instincts, which urge hide your scent while hunting), here it is not worth waiting for, and in such cases the dog you must be sure to bathe and clean.

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

Education and training of a puppy dachshund literally begins with the appearance of his birth. First, training is based on the unconditioned reflexes and instincts. Every day the puppy develops and gains new experience, and by the month with a small taksёnkom to do targeted training.

Interestingly, if the puppy is brought up and trained the clever mother, he copies her behavior. It is learning through observation of the mother-dog teaches the puppy to go to the toilet in the right place, it does not allow a host to chew shoes, in short, grow-bred puppy.

But, of course, you should not rely entirely on the mother's education and the need to take the initiative in their hands.

Education fees

Team training should be preceded by educational work. It includes:

  • accustom the puppy to a nickname,
  • in place,
  • to the regime of feeding,
  • to the rules of conduct in the apartment and on the street,
  • leash and collar.

If in training can wait a few months, as there are cases of successful training even adult dogs, then with the education is better not to delay. We fees quickly formed patterns of behavior. This clever dog, and she quickly realizes that boorish to live much more interesting, if the owner will look the other way.

For example, certain fees are very fond of begging at the table, jumping front paws on man and whining. All unwanted actions adult dog - is the result of deficiencies in education. Start raising Dachshund is necessary to establish contact with her and understanding.

First, for the puppy had a reputation, then it should take the place of the owner. The puppy must learn the rules of living next to a man:

  • do not whine and do not run at night,
  • get used to the toilet in designated areas,
  • do not chew on furniture and things
  • not to steal food from the table.

As soon as you bring your puppy home, determine for him his place. When he tries to climb on a chair or ask you to bed, carry it on a rug or a sunbed and say, "Place!". Immediately start vvoditzapretitelnuyu command "Yuck." It should sound every time a puppy dachshund makes undesired operation. For example, whining in front of your bed.

If the puppy did not immediately identify the place he will choose it himself and convince him it will be very difficult. Make up for your dachshund daily routine and try to follow it strictly. This will help train your puppy to the paddock on the street and in general a positive effect on his discipline. Feed it only in the prescribed place at certain hours.

Be sure to buy toys for the Dachshund, but do not let it all at once. Puppy constantly need new impressions, but he can not hold a lot of objects in the center of his attention. After a little dachshund accustomed to a new home and ceases to behave restlessly in search of his mother, brothers and sisters, put on her collar. Let her walk around the house in it to get used to.

Then you can try to wear lightweight leash. Do not choose to Dachshund heavy leash with a carbine that will stop her move. At first, do not pull on the leash, allowing the puppy to run freely on it behind you or ahead of you. But once it is necessary to suppress the command "Ugh!" Dachshund attempts to play with the leash. She must understand that it is not a toy, but a means to control its movement.

Subsequently, it will help in the training team "Walk!" When the taxi will see the difference between the quiet procession on a leash & Run on the affairs. Encourage fee each time for good behavior.

Up to 4 months, a puppy is difficult to accustom to the fact that he went to the toilet just outside. To punish him for it is impossible, but you can just say "Ugh!" Every time you see that it is going to do their business at home. On the street, on the contrary, it encourages it. So, gradually, the rate will be clean dogs.

Training fees

Train a Dachshund is very interesting, given its small size and unusual constitution. For example, the command "Down!" Slightly reduces the size of Dachshund and from afar, you can not even see whether a taxi or lies. Any training technique can be reduced to three actions:

  • The dog was in many ways forced to make the right move.
  • Do so that the implementation of the motion brought the dog positive emotions, that is, give a treat or praise and iron.
  • Before making the motion give the desired command.

All these actions have to prodelyvat 3-5 times in a row to secure the reflex. In order to successfully training your dog, it is important to interest in the performance of the team. Specific advice is difficult to give, it all depends on the individual dog. But most of the Dachshund are very fond of delicious pieces, so for a treat are trained faster. Education has to go from simple to complex. Up to two months of age engaged in raising a puppy by entering the command "Fu", "place" and "To me!".

Then move on to learning basic commands:

  • "Sit!"
  • "Down!"
  • "Beside!",
  • "Stop!"
  • "Walk!".

Since about three months need to provide training in the conditions of distractions on the street when you hear the noise of cars, talk to other people. If time does not teach a taxi to the noise of city streets, it will then be afraid of him and lose the ability to respond to your commands in a noisy environment.

In principle, this can temper rolling fees and finish as the basic commands enough for a harmonious life in the society of people. But if you want to expand the capacity of their fees, then taught her the command "Do not remember me!" To find things by smell, to fulfill aportirovku items. Hunting instincts fees as Norns dogs can also develop special training, called pritravka.

At what stage is complete dog training fee depends on the decisions and the interests of the owner of the dog. If the owner - a creative person, his dachshund skillfully performs various tricks: is dancing, brings a variety of items. Wits taksёnka can be taught almost all the skills available canine intelligence.

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