Dalmatians

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Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

Probably not in the world a man who would not know how looks of breed Dalmatians. These adorable dog stand out among the other species characteristic color - white with black spots, which cover the entire body and even the inside of the mouth.

The origin of the Dalmatian

The history of this breed dates back several thousand years, although exactly when there was a breed of scientists still can not. Too many reminders of the ancient world are the memories of the Dalmatian. So for example it was found relief relating to Ancient Egypt, which depicts a dog with spotted coloring coloring is very reminiscent of a Dalmatian. This relief dates back to 2100-1700 BCE During excavations in many Mediterranean countries have been found pictures of dogs with the same color, which were made in the period from 4th to 3rd millennium BC

Too many reminders of ancient Greece suggest that the breed Dalmatians already been held in high esteem and is very popular. The famous ancient scholar Xenophon in his writings, said that was a spotted dog is a sign of its nobility, while the ease of monotony symbolized origin. Some images that have been created 3000 years ago in Greece, well preserved paintings of hunting in which the Dalmatians, or dog-like color chase prey for their owners.

Especially amazed scientists finds made on the territory of Austria. Here, during the excavation, were found well-preserved remains of a dog lying in huge heaps of ashes. These remains belong to the Bronze Age, and there are already more than 4 thousand years. This breed of dog called fly researchers, from the word ash, and where they found it. They believe that it is from ash dogs occurred most modern breeds of hunting dogs. At the same anatomical features the most on them it is like Dalmatian.

But an interesting fact is that the work of Xenophon are the last memory of Dalmatians until the XIII century. Scientists are still trying to unravel the mystery of the disappearance of the breed in the 15th century.

Whence comes dalmatians?

Despite the huge number of memos, in which there are data on Dalmatians accurately determine their true home is quite difficult. On this score there are a lot of theories, no one of which is to confirm the residual and failed.

Some scientists believe that the Dalmatians were bred in Dalmatia. The province of Yugoslavia located on the Mediterranean coast. The researchers confirmed their theory of the phonetic similarity of the breed's name and the name of the geographical terrain. Opponents of this theory emphasize that the number of Dalmatians in Dalmatia to date, very few and they are all brought into the country from other countries.

The second theory on the number of adherents suggests that the breed Dalmatians have Indian roots. Such a theory has arisen based on a number of national Indian legends which recall the dog with a mottled color, supposedly descended from the white Indian tiger.

From the point of view of biology is the origin of the breed is fundamentally wrong, as tigers and dogs are members of different families and their mating quite impossible. But despite this, many ancient scientists insist on the theory.

Modern scholars, studying the works of his predecessors, find themselves a lot of questions in each of the theories. Chief among them is how the dog got to Europe. Some researchers, in response to this question, claim that dalmatitsny came to the territory of Dalmatia with the troops of Julius Caesar, who led for a long time fighting in the area. That led his legions from Dalmatia spotted dogs and spread across Europe.

Proponents of the theory of the Indian origin of the breed say that Europe Dalmatians got along with the nomadic Gypsies, who came in order to establish their settlements. They gradually increase the size of the dog's breed and spread across Europe.

But in this case, no one theory has not been confirmed.

Whence came the name?

The origin of Dalmatians - is not the only secret of interest to scientists. Many researchers have long been trying to find an answer to the question, where did the name "Dalmatian". If you carefully examine the written memo of different peoples, one can see that each of them had his own name to the color of a Dalmatian dog. In India this breed called Brakk Bengali or Indian dog, due to belief in the origin of Dalmatians from the tiger; European countries called the French Dalmatian dogs, Harlequin Dalmatian hounds, hounds and Danish were still a number of names.

Many reputable scientists and breeders have built a number of his theories on the origin of the name of the breed.

One of these theories is the name of the dog in honor of the poet George Dalmatian, who lived in Serbia in the XVI century. Allegedly, the Countess of Bohemia gave the poet a few spotted dogs that differed beauty and elegance. They gave the offspring and the poet began to spread dogs of Serbia. In a letter to the Countess, he said that his dog enjoying the incredible demand, and their masters in gratitude to the poet called them Dalmatians.

Another theory tells us that the breed is named after the Yugoslav province of Dalmatia. Ostensibly this land hunting dog with a distinctive spotted coloration divorced for a long time. Moreover breed is considered a national, as symbolized multiple findings. Images of white dog with black spots found on ancient pottery found in the area; some noble houses portrayed Dalmatians on their coats of arms. In addition, these dogs are mentioned in the writings of many historians and travelers of the time. In the archives of one of the monasteries in Dalmatia were found records of Bishop Peter, who describes the breed of dog Canis Dalmaticus. This description is much like an international standard for the breed dalmatian. In addition, he argues that in Dalmatia there were a kennel for breeding this breed.

Another common theory is that the name of the breed was given in honor of the outfits of the priests of the time. Every priest wore pure white clothes, with which was supposed to wear a long ribbon called dalmatic. This tape was made of different materials, including Ermine. Materials for such outfits purchased in Dalmatia. Many scientists say that this outfit and color Dalmatian were very similar, and people have noticed this similarity, the dogs began to call in honor of ermine tape priests. And the origin of the breed in this theory plays no role.

There are a number of different hypotheses to explain the origin of the word "Dalmatian," but none of them as a result has not been confirmed.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

GENERAL FORM
Dalmatian - a well-balanced, characteristic colored, strong, muscular and active dog. Symmetrical lines, devoid of roughness and clumsiness and, by definition, "four-wheel dog" is very hardy and able to move quickly.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS
Body length: height to the length = approximately 9:10
Length of skull: length of muzzle = 1: 1

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT
Outgoing and friendly, not shy or hesitant, not nervous or aggressive.

HEAD - rather long

CRANIAL
Skull: Flat, fairly broad between the ears, well defined temples. Minor groove. It is wrinkle-free.
Stop: Moderately defined.

FACIAL
Nose: In black-spotted dogs nose is always black, in brown-spotted - always brown.
Muzzle: Long, filled. Nasal bridge straight and parallel to the outside of the skull.
Lips: clean pretty tight to the jaw, not pendulous. Complete pigmentation is desired.
Jaws / Teeth: Jaws strong with perfect and regular scissor bite. Preferred full set of teeth 42 (tooth in accordance with the formula). Teeth are smooth and white.
Eyes: Moderately wide apart, medium size, round, bright and sparkling with an intelligent and alert expression. Colour dark brown in black spotted dogs, light brown to amber in brown. Eye rims completely black in the black spotted, and completely brown in brown-spotted dog. Eyelid adjacent to the eyeball.
Ears: Set on rather high, medium size, rather wide at the base. Hold pressed to the head, gradually tapering to a rounded point. Subtle to the touch markings are well defined, preferably spotted.

NECK Fairly long, with a beautiful bend, tapering to the head, without suspension.

BODY
Back: Strong, smooth
Loins: Clean, muscular and slightly rounded.
Croup: with a very slight inclination
Chest: - not too broad, but deep and capacious. The lower part should reach to the elbow. The front part of the chest well visible in profile. Ribs are proportional, long, slightly rounded, never flat, barrel-shaped or malformed.
Boca: tight groin.
Bottom line: The belly is well tucked up.

TAIL
About reaches hock. Strong at the base, gradually tapering towards the end, not rude. Seated neither too low nor too high. At rest is held down with a slight upward bend in the lower third of the tail. The motion is carried slightly above the topline, but never upright (hilarious tail) and twisting. Preferably spotted.

LIMBS
Front: perfectly straight with strong, rounded on all length bones.
Shoulders: Moderately oblique, clean and muscular.
Elbows: Close to the body never twisted in one direction or another.
Pasterns: Straight, with a slight slope.
Hind legs: round, clean, muscular. Viewed from the rear, vertical and parallel.
Hocks: Well sloped.
Lower thigh: Strong.
Hock: Strong, with good slope.
Feet: Round, compact, with well-assembled into a ball with your fingers ("cat's paw"). Pads round, tough and elastic. Nails black or white, black and spotted brown or white and have brown-spotted dog.

GAIT / MOVEMENT
Very loose. Smooth, powerful, rhythmic active with a very long step and a good removal of the forelimbs. When viewed from the rear legs moving parallel, back to the track of the front. Short step and paddling movements - are wrong.

COAT
HAIR: Short, hard, dense, shiny and glossy.
COLOUR: Basic color pure white. Black spotted variety with black spots, liver spotted - with brown spots; spot round, do not merge, well-defined, as far as possible evenly distributed. Size 2-3 cm in diameter. The spots on the head and extremities smaller than on the trunk.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
The most important is the overall balance.
The height at the withers for males: 56-61 cm
Height at the withers for bitches: 54-59 cm
Weight:
For males approximately 27-32 kg
For bitches approximately 24-29 kg

LIMITATIONS
Any deviation of the above should be regarded as a disadvantage, the severity of which depends on the severity.

Bronze (the Bronze lightening-like black spots)

ELIMINATING FAULTS

  • expressed overshot or undershot
  • ectropion, entropy, thorn, eyes of different color (heterochromia)
  • blue eyes
  • deafness
  • dog with small congenital spots around the eyes (monocle) or elsewhere, are allowed to breed
  • Tricolor (black and brown spots on the same dog)
  • Lemon (lemon or orange spots)
  • very timid or aggressive behavior
  • deaf in both ears Dalmatians and blue-eyed, should be excluded from breeding, ideally also be excluded deaf in one ear
  • Dogs with small patches around the eyes (monocle) or any other places should be allowed to breed;
  • preferred males with pigmented scrotum.

NOTE: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

RECOMMENDATION:
To reduce the incidence of deafness in Dalmatians (20-30%):

It is this standard by experts at dog shows in Russia.

Character

Характер: 

Dalmatians - charming, seemingly a little light-headed dog with black spots all over his body. These spots are actually scattered everywhere. If you open them to fall, you will be surprised to see that there are spots. Imagine, at birth they have those points. Puppies are born completely white. The spots appear as they grow older.

Dalmatian so funny, like a toy. Dalmatians became especially popular after the release of the Disney movie "101 Dalmatians" But this popularity had to pay owners who thought getting a loving creature, like in the movies. But this friend - not Hollywood. The Dalmatians were so many crosses are not desirable, that the factory was not the predictable offspring. They are too aggressive.

But this does not mean that all Dalmatians problems. With proper breeding and training these attractive dogs can become excellent friends. This is one of the few breeds that are bred as a coach. Dalmatians task was - to run ahead of the carriage and clear the way of the people. These dogs are first defended the wealthy in their carriages, and then began to be used to protect horse-drawn fire wagons.

Dalmatians - a big dog even more individuality. This is a very active breed of dog, and some individuals over active. They love to have fun and love to play, play and play. If you do not like when the dog jumped on you with all her love and weight at the time, when you leave the car, the Dalmatians are not for you.

Dalmatians need a daily physical exercise serious and require a long time to get tired. They enjoy running, playing with a ball. They can spend hours running up to you while you are driving next to a bicycle. Usually Dalmatians adore water. If Dalmatians are not getting enough exercise, its behavior can become destructive. For this breed of dogs need to undergo obedience at an early age.

Dalmatian may take over the dominant role in the family, so it is important to let him know who's a leader. Dolmatinets will use the same time, if the owner does not do anything with his bad behavior. However, they are quite well to home education. But even well-trained Dalmatians from time to time may surprise his master's unusual (usually not very pleasant) behavior. Dogs of this breed is quickly attached to the owner and adore family environment.

Dalmatians will try to follow you from room to room, and at night you will want to jump into bed so that you embraced them. If Dalmatians leave aside from what the family is, he begins to bark loudly and often, to chew things and arrange saps. Spotted dogs were bred as guard breed, so they are eager to protect his family. They will always know when a stranger approaches. They almost never bite, especially if they are not provoked.

Ideal conditions for the life of Dalmatian is a warm climate, and the ability to run a lot. Keeping a dog in a city apartment is not recommended.

If you decide to have a Dalmatian understand - it's a bundle of energy. It should match your lifestyle.

Care and maintenance

REQUIRED grooming

Dalmatian does not need, like other breeds, Pruning and trimming. If your pet is not "met" with anything particularly "fragrant", there is no need to wash it more than twice a year. To wash your dog, use a good shampoo for normal hair. The water temperature in the bath should be about 30 degrees. Make sure that the soap water from getting into the dog's eyes. Thoroughly rinse shampoo remnants of a strong jet showers. After bathing, towel dry the hair should be long until it dries. After bathing and drying your Dalmatian needs at least two hours in a room, so as not to catch a cold.

Some Dalmatians are extremely prone to skin irritations. It is important to know what to do to keep your skin at its best Dalmatian. Pay close attention to small problems before they turn into big trouble.

Occasionally comb tough white dog's coat and skin of your Dalmatian will be shiny and gleaming in the sun. Periodically remove old, dead hair; they can cause irritation.

Comb every day or with a brush with bristles of medium hardness or massage gloves, Dalmatian virtually no shedding. If your dog sheds much, scratching or she has a place with the fallen hair, maybe it's allergy symptoms. Reconsider its diet. Add in his daily menu one to two teaspoons of fat. Try to gently wipe the dog's skin with vitamin E oil. Some owners are successful with the help of lanolin cream.

To make the hair shine and remove dirt can once in two weeks to wipe your dog's coat with a cloth dampened with a solution consisting of three equal parts: the vinegar, vodka and water.

Care for the ears

For regular osmatru ears is necessary to teach a dog from puppyhood. You should be interested in the amount and color of sulfur, and the smell from the ears.
Sulphur protects the ear from infection and drying, so pure healthy ears, especially with the use of oils, liquids, alcohol in any case impossible. If dust, sand, water, excess clean, healthy sulfur (it is plastic, almost odorless, or cream-beige-brown color), you can wipe the ear clean, dry cotton wool.

Inflammation of ear emergence redness and sores can be treated with special ear drops, such as company "Vetzim", sold in pet stores. If the application of drops does not help, contact your veterinarian.

CARE claws

Your Dalmatian need to regularly cut claws, regardless of whether your dog exhibit or just a pet. Regrown nails paw disbanded do not allow fingers to gather into a ball.

Dalmatians have to be collected, "cat" paw constantly long claws will not allow her to be formed in the desired type. Moreover, too otrosshie claws can be deformed and to grow into the paws, which can lead to inflammation.

For trimming use special tongs claws, freely sold in pet stores. By purchasing them, do not forget about the hemostatic agent, preferably in the form of powder. It may be necessary if you inadvertently will touch the pink part of the nail, through which nerves and blood vessels.

If you start to cut your pet's claws at an early age, and you do it regularly, no problem, you will not get any. To better behaved dog while not quite pleasant at first shearing process claws and was not afraid of it, start the procedure at the time when the dog is sluggish or sleepy.

So, get the pink part of the claw and confidently cut the claw just below it. If the dog's claws are bright, you make it very easy, as the pink section is clearly visible. With dark nails harder, but if you cut them a little below the rounding, it can not go wrong. With regular trimming claws living part of the claw like "postponed" back deep into danger and hurt her when cutting is reduced.

If you do cut your dog, take a pinch of styptic powder, sprinkle it on the claw, and push your finger around this place for 45 seconds. Repeat procedure up until the blood stops. After you have shortened the claws, align them. For this purpose, perfect for a large metal needle file. After them a few times, you remove all the bumps and burrs.

Dental care

From early puppyhood is necessary to monitor the state of your teeth Dalmatian. Be especially careful during the change of teeth. Baby teeth should not hinder the growth of permanent and if they do not fall by the time the molars, then they should be removed. To do this, take the baby tooth thumb and forefinger with the help of a piece of bandage so it will not slip out, and shake gently pry. This procedure does not cause the dog much pain because the baby teeth have deep roots. Do not remote in time can damage baby teeth bite prevent molars grow smoothly.

In Dalmatians, as a rule, there are no problems with the bite, but do not pull the puppy out of his mouth toys, sticks and other objects, so as not to spoil the correct scissor bite.

In older dogs should be regularly removed from the teeth yellow plaque using tooth powder coated on the soaked piece of cotton or a bandage. Chronic plaque can be removed by a metal spatula from manicure set.

Summer is useful to give your pet fresh tomatoes in the winter - unsalted tomato juice. From this plaque becomes thinner and easier to remove. It helps to get rid of the yellow plaque and lemon juice. It is found in lemon peel, which can be wiped clean the dog's teeth.

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

In recent years it has become dismissive attitude to training. Maybe it played a role DOSAAFovskaya obyazalovke in previous years. Someone scared away not the best trainers, and the same primitive methods of dealing with the shepherds, and poodles. Even the trainers often see dogs only purpose is to bite - whether defending the homeland, whether the host - and not understand why still need a dog. Unfortunately, in our country, "civil" types of training are still considered not prestigious. Some owners believe that to engage in what the dog, "I have it, and so smart." I would like to argue, you can imagine the professor's son, who "had the" primary school? Than the ability of the child, the parents are more involved in its formation.

And now, the arguments on the merits. In addition to being trained dog is less risk of losing or hit by a car, except that it is much more pleasant to live with a dog, and you, and others - at the very dogs just change the quality of life. It often take with them everywhere, it is less bored at home alone, her life becomes richer and more interesting than the ill-mannered fellow, from her hardly get rid "namayalis" owners.

And the most important, in my opinion, the argument that the dog should be possible for mental activity. It is not a piglet, and its needs are not limited to food and affection. Imagine that you, an adult, fed, watered, lead to the toilet and sometimes (or often) pat on the head. It seems not a prison, not a hospital, is not it? Even a child of six protest against this attitude.

So let us respect our dogs! They are smart and even talented. A good dog's desire to be helpful - it is a vital necessity. Remember how proud of a dog that carries your bag or guarded dacha! And the prestige of the breed in others much more dependent on the breeding of dogs than of show successes, understandable only to professionals.

I would like to note that the worldwide dog training is paid a lot of attention. In the US, Dalmatians - indispensable participants in competitions in obedience, agility, on the trail, and often winning in such competitions. Competitions on training is often conducted within the framework of specialty shows. In Europe, no Dalmatian Agility - no Dalmatian; the increasing role of the dog in the provision of social assistance to the disabled, the elderly, children with developmental delays. And only we have fixated on the activities of dog handlers of exhibitions may be because at the time we are now behind this enthusiasm to catch up.

In addition, training is available to all the dogs - and champions, and pets. Hosts nevystavochnyh dogs have the opportunity to fulfill your potential and do not worry about the "wrong" estimates. What kind of training will suit Dalmatian? Firstly, obedience or DCD. It is available and necessary for all dogs, as in life, and for more specific types of training. The rich history of the breed Dalmatians left a legacy and hunting, and guard instincts. However, they are expressed to a greater or lesser extent different even littermates. Find out your puppy's natural inclinations. Like humans, dogs like to do what she does best.

Almost all Dalmatians "turns" in agility. This type of training as if specially created for our breed. It should be a time to come to the site, and Dalmatian infect you with their passion and enthusiasm. This is a great opportunity in a short time to lose energy, build muscle, gambling, entertainment sport with a great future. Besides agility - a passion for life. In international competitions, the dogs usually appear after 6 years - in fact the secret of agility is not the ability to jump, and in perfect obedience, understanding man and a dog at a glance - because every second counts!

And you can start practicing with 6 months rounds at agility safe and not traumatic. One of my puppies, Bagration snow of Siberia, was the road agility in 9 months the first time, including a soft tunnel and jump into the wheel.

In the US, a very common competitions trace the where with success involved Dalmatians because hound tend to walk on the trail. However, investigative training in the United States are not connected with detention.

We have the best training program for rescue dogs, this is clearly stated in the latest breed standard. And in the life of this skill will come in handy more than once. A sense of smell and the ability to search in Dalmatians gorgeous. My bitch Anais Alcide found keys lost in the woods after 8 hours. Her daughter went to Nice for nearly an hour on the reverse track (not in my opinion) and has found the lost lead. But even coniferous forest hunters considered too difficult for hounds as needles interrupts other odors. And both dogs are not passed special training.

Well developed in many Dalmatians and hunting instinct, and skilful approach have turned to good hunters and beast and bird.
Watchdog instinct as well preserved in most dogs. In the introduction to the American standard Dalmatian devoted to these words: "This is a quiet creature - the perfect guard who is well versed when barking for fun, and when the case. With invited guests, he is very kind, but you are always ready to protect the owner and give a fitting rebuff the enemy - it is a sensitive and reliable guard. "

I would like to note that dogs are not born perfect in themselves, are necessary and the efforts of breeders, and the efforts of the owner. As with any breed protective quality is higher in males, although females plays the role of the maternal instinct (in relation to the owner!), Often aided by intelligence. My older dog, Anais arranged in suspicious situations, demonstration performances, demonstrating his ability to hang a stranglehold on a leash (all on their own!) And drunken company swerves!

You can train a Dalmatian, a game, or using protective instinct. Develop the Dalmatian anger to the person absolutely unacceptable, given its hunting instincts. This flexibility can lead to an attack on human rights. I had to see my dog ​​in the woods attacked on the horizon of man "according to the rules of hunting hound." The situation was saved only the absence of malice - for them it was just a game, not in the hound, is not in the dog Mukhtar. In the end, Dalmatian differs from the Dogo Argentino, the same wagon, a low level of aggressiveness.

It is worth recalling that a Dalmatian outdoors fearlessly run up very young children, so Dalmatian training as a bodyguard gives me the most objections. And it does is not acceptable and important initiative smart trainer.

Choosing the trainer is no less important than the choice of a veterinarian. In a large city, you can find the right specialist, traveled several tempering platforms, after consulting with the club. It is important for you to be like-minded, and that it is with understanding and sympathy for our breed. If the trainer says the only standing Rottweiler dog, he even unconsciously will strive to prove to you that "nothing you brought this worthless dog." In smaller towns, it is best to have your trainer at the club or clubs Dalmatians. In Tyumen, we were lucky, as a professional trainer Elena Razheva she holds a Dalmatian and a wonderful sense of our breed. It prepares the dogs for agility and OKD, often served with demonstration performances in the city.

In the end, even in the deep forest, and you will be able to otdressirovat his dalmatian, it would wish. We Julia Kondratenko, in 18 years having got the first in the life of a dog, brilliantly prepared her for OKD, the show in the ring brought to perfection. In the city of Julia and Asya (Azalea) became legendary personalities, and because of them rock fans will find many more.

So, when and where to start? First of all, choosing a puppy, ask the characters of the parents. I, as a breeder, I would like to mention a great mentality in children Baro White Cheetah and Silver Lining Voshaki - I finally saw Dalmatians with strong nerves, balanced, confident and non-contentious.

Second, to engage with the puppy should immediately, with one and a half months, and not just potty training. By 3 months of a puppy is quite able to master all of the commands OKD. And it's not just the fact that at this age, he quickly grasps everything on the fly, and not stubborn. Physiologists proved that the baby's brain continues to develop in the early years (the puppies in the first 4 months of life). And the more you do, the more it becomes a developed brain, the number of neural connections is increased by 30%, that is, you get a capable dog that in 5-6 years will be better absorb new than the loss of a child.

So I'm in the club all owners of puppies with schenyachkoy supplied with instructions for cultivation, where much attention is paid to education in the 2, 3, 4 months, and so on, that is advocating developmental education in accordance with the age and breed. In addition, all offered free of charge to rewrite 3-hour cassette with English and American course of training puppies, which not only help the owners of the right to bring up their pets, and infect them with enthusiasm.

I would like to finish the beautiful words of the American standard, "Dalmatian - dog is not for everyone, because not every amateur can uncover and use hidden in it an excellent working quality of the mind, even if he will treat the dog with lots of love." So let's give our dogs a chance at a full life, they certainly deserve!

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