English bulldog

Основное фото: 
питание английского бульдога
Дополнительныое фото: 
Bulldog
Bulldog foto
Breed bulldog

Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

The appearance of an English bulldog quite comical. However, short legs, massive body and wrinkled face in this case is just an example of what is best judged by the appearance is not necessary. Dogs of this breed is characterized by remarkable agility and strength.

As the name implies, the breed was bred in England. The first memories of bulldogs date back XIII century. The name of the dogs got a result that the main purpose for which they were bred at the time, was the lowering of the bulls. A part of "Vull" in the title is translated from English - the bull. Huge bull tied to a pole and incited them Bulldogs, and those due to its incredible strength easily defeated a larger opponent. Such entertainment was popular among the English population until the 1830s, after which it was strictly forbidden. As a result, reduce the need for power and aggression bulldogs and the breed almost completely disappeared, survived only thanks to real fans of the breed.

Before there were English bulldogs, battles with bulls used smaller breeds, but it led to the fact that by the end of the fight most of the dogs died. It was not profitable as the owners of the dogs, and those who put their money on them. As a result, the role of "bykogryzov" took the Bulldogs, who never ceased to please the aristocrats who regularly put their money on them.

The most common substitute for English bulldog mastiff was. At the time, they often can be seen in the service of butchers and with their work they handled almost the same as the Bulldogs.

But still English bulldogs their rage and strength superior to competitors. Their fighting qualities constantly cultivate and develop. The earliest Bulldogs are very diverse shapes, colors and sizes. The difference is evident even in the structure of the jaw. They were selected among the best of all the different representatives directly bulls. Under the hooves and horns of all the dogs died, which could not fully resist the furious bull. Their owners to notice all the errors the breed, dogs which prevented prevail and cleaned them in the development process.

Mastiff in the fighting often tried to overwhelm his opponent thanks to its large mass. But she was their main drawback. Dogs clung to the neck and ears of the enemy and could not dodge the blows horns and hooves.

The Bulldogs also had a huge advantage. They immediately took aim at the nose of the bull, which is the most sensitive spot, and gradually subordinated animal. As a result, the bull ran out of the arena, which is the main sign of the victory of the dog.

English Bulldogs in the form in which they are preserved today - a man-dog. They are distinguished by good nature and tranquility that is the antithesis of the aggressive and uncompromising fighters who inspired fear even to the inhabitants of ancient Rome. But, despite this, certain qualities of the ancestors of modern Bulldogs still remain. Especially manifested their independence.

Good-natured dog

Since the main advantage of the Bulldogs were strength, courage and power that they are fully implemented in the arena, after the ban baiting bulls, most bulldogs were simply unnecessary. To fix this breed again had to change.

English bulldogs fighting qualities have made it possible to make them excellent guards and watchmen. Those dogs that had the same aggressive nature, often sent on a plantation in the colony, where they are used immediately.

Those dogs that stayed at the homes of aristocrats were subject to strict rehabilitation. Their resilience and fearlessness gradually transformed into acquiescence and tolerance towards others. This dog is more "approach" the true English gentleman. But, unfortunately, with the purchase of a Bulldog "respectable" qualities, the courage and tenacity with which his ancestors had been lost.

But even despite this, the English Bulldog is by far one of the most ferocious and brave guards, who would not give offense to his master.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

Overall impression: short-haired, solid build, rather stocky dog, broad, powerful and compact.

The head is quite large relative to the size of the dog, but in any case not enough to break the general symmetry, the dog looked deformed, or to affect the quality of movement. The front part of the short, muzzle broad, blunt and curved upward. Dogs that have noticeable breathing problems, is highly undesirable.

The trunk is short, powerfully built, but with no tendency towards obesity.

The limbs are strong and muscled, strong. The back of the high and strong but somewhat lighter in comparison with heavy front end. Females are less powerful and representative than the dogs.

Behavior / temperament: the impression of determination, strength and activity. Alert, thoughtful, courageous, self-confident, loyal, reliable, brave, external impression - fierce, but nature-loving and gentle.

HEAD: Seen from the side looks like a high, deep and short bugra from the occipital to the tip of the nose. The forehead is flat, the skin around the head and it forms a clear fold, not too appears not hanging over the muzzle. Frontal bone projection raised convex, broad, square and high. Broad and deep furrow traced by the foot to the top of the skull. The front part of the nose to the top is short, in the folds of the skin. Distance from inner corner of eye (or from center of stop between eyes) to the tip of nose not exceeding length from tip of nose to the corner of the lower lip.

Skull:

Skull: large in circumference. When viewed from the front it is very high on the angle of the lower jaw to the top of the skull. It is also very broad and square.

Stop: deep, with a wide groove (depression) between the eyes.

The front part:

Seen from the front of its components must be equally balanced, that is, are symmetric with respect to the imaginary center line.

Nose: Nose and nostrils large, broad, black, with no trace of hepatic, red or brown, deeply recessed between the eyes.
Nostrils large, wide and open, with well-marked vertical furrow between them.

Muzzle: Muzzle short, broad, curved upwards and very deep from the corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth. The nasal fold should not affect the line profile.

Flews: thick lips, wide, pendulous and very deep, hanging completely close the jaw at the sides, but not the front, where reaches the edge of the lower lip and only cover the teeth.

Jaws / Teeth: Jaws broad, massive and square, lower jaw projects forward top and curved upwards. Jaws with 6 incisors in a flat line between the teeth. Canines wide apart. Teeth large and strong, with a closed mouth not visible. Seen from the front lower jaw is located directly under the top and parallel to it.

Cheeks: cheeks are rounded, protruding under the eyes to the side.

Eyes: Seen from the front when placed low on the skull, at a good distance from the ears. The eyes and feet are on the same straight line, at right angles to furrow. Wide apart, but outer corners of them are inside the outer line of the cheeks. The rounded shape, medium size, not sunken nor prominent, in color very dark - almost black - and seen from the front with no visible protein. Free from obvious eye problems.

Ears: set high - ie, the front edge of each ear (seen from the front) With regard to the external line of the skull in the upper corner, so they are available as widely as possible, as high as possible and as far from the eyes. Small and thin. The correct their shape - "rose", ie Hanging and converts back to back, upper or front edge of the curved outward and back, making the visible part of the so-called "back of the tongue."

Neck: medium length, very thick, deep and strong. Good rounded at the top line, with a significant amount of excess fat in the skin folds under the throat, each side forming the suspension from the lower jaw to the chest.

BODY: Topline: Slightly lowered just behind the withers (the lower part), must then go up to the waist (the level above the height at the withers), then rounding lowers the tail, forming an arch sail - peculiar to the breed.

Back: Back short, strong, broad at the shoulders and comparatively narrow at the waist. Chest: Chest wide, laterally round, convex and deep. The chest volume, round and very deep from the withers to the lowest part, where it joins the chest. Omitted low between forelegs. Large in diameter, round behind forelegs (not flat in shape, well arched ribs).

Belly: The belly is tucked up, not pendulous.

Tail: low set at the base of a fairly straight and then curves downward. Round, smooth without fringe or hard coat. Medium length - rather short than long - thick at the base, tapering to an end quickly. Pointing down (no upward curvature at the end), it never rises above the back.

Limbs: Belt forelimb: End sturdy and strong, well developed, broadly put a thick, muscular and straight, with a mean outside their line rather bent, but the bones of the limbs large and straight, not curved and is not curved towards the rear - short, but not so as to spin or long seemed to reduce or damaging activity dogs.

Shoulders: Shoulders broad, sloping sloping and deep, very powerful and muscular, giving the impression of massiveness.

Elbow: elbow located low and spaced from the edges.

Pastern: pasterns short, straight, strong.

Hindquarters: Of course, large and muscular, longer in proportion of the front, due to which the waist is raised. Legs long and muscular from loins to hock their lower part kotorkaya, direct and powerful.

Knees: Knee round and slightly deployed away from the body.

Hocks: Hocks should be slightly close together, and the hind legs turned outwards. Hocks slightly bent with moderately angulated, low located.

Feet: front - straight and slightly deployed outside; medium size, moderately rounded. Rear - round and compact. Toes compact and thick, arched, as a result of their highly joints are issued raised.

Movement: specific gait short, quick steps on tips of toes, hind feet not lifted high, and a little shuffling, movement from shoulder to shoulder vraskachku independently and vigorously. Strength and quality of movements in the extreme important.

Coat:

Wool: soft texture, short, close-fitting, smooth (especially strict - short and tight, not wavy).

Color: solid color or "unrest" (ie, monochrome with a black mask on the face). Only a solid color (which should be bright and clean), namely, brindle, different shades of red, fawn, deer, etc., as well as white and brindle (ie combination of white with any of the foregoing colors). It is highly undesirable Dudley, black and black and tan.

Weight:

Males: 25 kg. '2855 pounds).

Bitches: 23 kg. (50 pounds).

Disadvantages (defects): Any departure from the foregoing should be considered a fault, and its value depends on the exact degree of deviation and its impact on the health and livelihoods of the dog.

It is expected that judges will closely follow this standard, taking into account the following defects:

Defects: The nasal fold too hangs or partially covers the nose

Disqualifications:

- Excessive aggression or shyness.
- Dogs that have noticeable respiratory disorders.
- Ingrown tail.

Any dog ​​showing mental or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
NB: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Character

Характер: 

The whole gives the impression of an English bulldog decisive, strong and energetic dogs. Thanks to its stature Bulldog has a very heavy, shuffling gait "in Razvalka." When moving a limb almost no bend, move small and fast, it seems that the bulldog is not running, and floats on an air cushion. About the appearance of the animal, there are many different kinds of jokes, and really, at first glance looks like a little dog inharmonious and even clumsy, but there is this breed something refined and sophisticated, not to see the first time. Many fans of the breed even call them "charming freaks." But the appearance defects are more than compensated kind and loving heart. Bulldog is charming in its own way, has the generosity and restraint. This dog deserves can act as an example, or even a standard of courage, bravery and fearlessness.

In his heart he unruffled, calm and peaceful. He's like an old man - nothing annoys him and not worry. At home you do not hear from him no barking, no squealing or roaring (sometimes snore, but nobody is perfect). On the other hand it is not necessary to hurt the dog, taking into account the possibility of the animal, it just can not stand up for themselves. Another noteworthy feature of the bulldog is his unswerving devotion. A dog owner is responsible reciprocate his love and care for everything else it does not exist: the level of income, living conditions, health or occupation, the host does not matter. It is this feature made the English bulldog (as well as most other breeds of dogs) man's best friend.

Character

The character of the English bulldog is characterized by its sustainability and stability. He is not prone to fits of fear, panic or aggression. It seems that nothing at all can bring a bulldog out of balance.

Bulldog strongly tied to their masters, take them for what they are. He is loyal and loving, get along well with other animals in the house, different intelligence and ease of training. To date, the Bulldogs moved into the category of companion dogs.

The temperament of the dog well-balanced and calm. English Bulldog is known for its bravery and courage, he did not hesitate to accept the challenge from any opponent, even the obviously much stronger than him. The breed is very peaceful, he did not provoke, but responds to the provocations with dignity, well-suited for the role of a nanny for kids. Dog intuitively responds to treatment of children and tries to imitate the adult. Because he loves all sorts of games easily occupy all the attention of the baby for a long time that will allow you to spend time on yourself. In case of danger, his determination and courage will not take long. Despite the fact that it looks a bit daunting, the dog is very sweet and good-natured in his own way. Breed different activity and mobility (despite the "korotkolapost" and massive physique), has a cheerful disposition.

As with most other dogs, bulldog can not stand alone, it needs your warmth and fellowship. With a shortage of communication becomes sullen and surly, may withdraw into themselves. The dog became famous for his stubbornness, this is not inferior to even the sheep, to achieve something by force or brutality bulldog almost impossible, but a caress on the contrary, to do so would not be difficult.

Care and maintenance

The short and very smooth coat Bulldogs easy to clean. Combing English bulldog need two or three times a week with a stiff bristle brush.

It is important that the folds on the face of the English Bulldog has always been clear, for that they need to be regularly cleaned with a damp cotton pad. If this is not done, the folds may be an infection. First, wipe the crease slightly damp cotton pad and then dry. Never leave the fold wet and do not use soap or other detergents, as this can cause irritation and allergic reaction.

Bathe English bulldog is necessary only when needed. Too frequent bathing leads to dry skin and can cause itching, peeling and skin irritation.

If the dog is dirty it can be wiped with a damp cloth. Regularly check the dog's claws, they cut the time, they should not delaminate and be sharp. English bulldog teeth also requires regular cleaning.

Despite his clumsiness and squat English bulldogs fairly active dogs need regular exercise. Because they are prone to rapid weight gain, obesity and some even, regular walks are very important for this breed. Very solid in nature English bulldogs are not very inclined to active movements on their own, so sometimes they have to force or motivate a more active lifestyle.

Loading exercise English Bulldogs can not be in extremely hot and cold weather. In the cold, short hair bulldog does not provide him virtually no protection, but in the heat in dogs with a similar anatomical structure of the skull can occur heat stroke, moreover, very quickly.

Footnote

Potential owner of an English bulldog should be aware that the dogs of this breed are prone to digestive problems and flatulence. They may also snore and drool.

Due to the rising popularity of the breed, some breeders bred English bulldogs excluding nature of dogs. This has led to an increase in aggression in the breed. Make sure you buy a puppy from an English bulldog responsible breeder.

It should be borne in mind that each individual dog. This description is typical of the breed as a whole and not always coincides with the specific characteristics of the breed!

Diseases of the Bulldog

English bulldogs are prone to the following diseases:

  • Cherry Eye
  • Entropion
  • Distichiasis
  • Keratoconjunctivitis
  • Heat stroke
  • Dermatitis skin folds
  • Acne
  • Interdigital dermatitis
  • Hip dysplasia
  • Congenital dislocation of the elbow
  • Hypoplasia of the trachea
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Brachycephalic syndrome
  • Difficult birth
  • Vaginal hyperplasia
  • Cryptorchism
  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Ctenoz aorta
  • Lymphosarcoma
  • Deafness

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

Education of English bulldog should begin with an introduction to the world and neat direction from the host. You need to educate your puppy every day and in all situations. Some people believe that dogs, like children, should be a certain age to live a carefree, all they can afford, and then teach. This is fundamentally wrong. The rules, which will have to comply with pet throughout its life, should be established from the very first moment of its appearance in a new home.

The owner must strictly enforce the established rules and avoid even the slightest concessions, no matter what the age was not a bulldog. Initially, when the puppy is not yet accustomed to the established order in the house and does not know what is possible and what is not, it is recommended to encourage him verbally and stroking for good behavior. If the English bulldog has violated a rule or disobeyed should shake him, taking the collar, and threatening voice to show their discontent.

While the Bulldog is small, this method of correction of behavior is necessary to actively use (not abuse). Thus, the owner makes it clear that he is bigger, stronger and more confident, and therefore more important, and the puppy is obliged to comply, as it should make the dog in the pack. The earlier Bulldog understand their place in the hierarchy of relationships, the better for all. It is not necessary to promote the fear of a bulldog, no matter how scared he did not look as simple stroking can be perceived inexperienced puppy as an endorsement.

At a young age should avoid fights between the English Bulldog and the other dog, a pet manifestations of aggression on the part of the people (especially the owners), we should not allow the harsh punishment. All this not only for the benefit of a bulldog, but can cause negative consequences - to make the dog angry and aggressive.

Educating and dressiruya English bulldog, you must exercise restraint and patience. Key concepts should be consistency and firmness. The owner must persevere, but to avoid coercion. Stubbornness these dogs can be overcome by finding the right approach to it. The most unruly dogs are in the "teen" age - from 6 months to 2.5 years. During this period, should be most carefully and aggressively approach to education and training of the English bulldog.

It must mention the fact that English bulldogs longing to lie down in a chair difficult to overcome even the most experienced dog breeders. Therefore, the best way out of this situation would be to cede bulldog, but the conditions of the host. It is recommended to select a dog one seat (or the old "current" without a difference), on which it can lie. The rest of the furniture should be untouchable. You can also enable bulldog lying on the couch, but just next to the host, that is, when there are no people on the couch, and the Bulldog could not sit there.

The most appropriate age to begin serious training is 6-12 months. In this period of life Bulldogs the most teachable, but that does not mean that before the age of the dog does not need to deal with, on the contrary. Teach simple commands can be right at home. The most important commands, which should be given special attention are the command "Give" and "Fu / can not."

If you learn some command does not work for a long time, it is necessary to interrupt their studies for a while. Maybe this team is still not "age".

Bulldogs training methods abound today, but the most popular continues to "rewards and punishments". Encourage for executing commands can be verbal (praise), tactile (stroke), situational (to run, to give a toy, etc.) and of course, a treat (a special dog the "Purchase", toast, a slice of unsalted cheese, etc.). Punishing best remotely, ie without touching the puppy (to noise loud spray of water, etc.). Verbal punishment (reprimands) and the restriction of freedom more effective with older dogs. In addition, you can be punished only if English Bulldog knows exactly what he wants it, but does not execute the command.

Encourage and punish follows immediately after the Bulldog action without delay. Deferred sentence even children are perceived poorly, and only dogs and even more so. As little as possible should be forced bulldog to do anything, as this can create his film to the training and the people, and he can become embittered. But! Coercion and perseverance - two different concepts.

Articles