Jack Russell Terrier is an indispensable assistant in hunting foxes. The main advantage of this little dog, unlike the big hounds were its small dimensions and extraordinary agility. These characteristics allow Jack Russell Terrier penetrate into the fox hole and chase the animal even there, driving him toward the hunters.
Especially popular in Europe such hunting was in the XVIII century. Hunters gallop raced through the forest, driving foxes. This fox terriers, who are direct descendants of the breed Jack Russell Terrier in a bag, waiting, when they need them. This method of transport was due to the fact that because of the small legs dog could not run on a level with the horse.
It is known that the breed Jack Russell Terrier comes from the miniature fox terriers, which are bred for a specific purpose - fox hunting. However, the major qualities that have evolved in the dog at the time, had the courage, endurance and extreme aggression toward animals, which were hunted. Appearance at the same time very little attention was given to dogs and special beauty and finesse were not different.
It was not until the 1850's. At this time, there was the dawn of dog shows in England. And of course in addition to the development of hunting skills presented dogs was highly appreciated their appearance. The course for further breeding of breed fox terrier was determined immediately.
As a separate breed terrier was recorded in 1870. This was possible thanks to the famous Kennel Club, whose members are engaged in what were trying to organize all the existing English breeds of dogs, and to create a standard for each of them.
After the fox terriers were officially recognized as their popularity has grown year by year. Within a few years, fox terriers were the most numerous exhibitors England. Most of the audience and the judges attracted unusual and elegant appearance of these small dogs. But, unfortunately, the selection directed towards the external qualities fox terriers led to the fact that their hunting instincts gradually weakened.
Long breeding species has led to the fact that the main rock split into two lines. Breeders first line continued to breed hunting dogs, which did not differ a beautiful appearance, but were effective in fox hunting. The second line is an exceptional exhibition of dogs that have been poorly suited for hunting, but won the hearts of the judges with their appearance. This led to the fact that the relationship between the fox terriers breeders increasingly sharpened.
Over time varied fox terriers. A special contribution to this process has brought a priest Jack Russell who was a part-time head of the Kennel Club and one of its founders. In his nursery, he bred exclusively hunting terriers. And Russell was committed is hunting line. It is often said that despite the unsightly appearance of his livestock is more natural and charming than the man-made exhibition copies.
From ordinary fox terriers through trial and error Jack Russell brought two new breeds Jack Russell Terrier and Parson Russell Terrier, who still managed to combine the outer pleasure and developed hunting quality. However, ordinary fox terriers gradually turned into a full show dogs that have become almost useless for hunting.
Sobakovodcheskaya career began with a Jack Russell terrier on a single named Tramp, which he bought on the market in 1814. His choice fell on this breed because while his main passion was fox hunting. It was Kripen'ka puppy with a smooth white hair, which almost immediately established himself as a skilled hunter and clever. It is with this dog and began a career sobakovodcheskaya priest. And his favorite Trump (translated to English), he took as his standard for further experiments in breeding dogs.
The origins of the breed Jack Russell Terrier
At the root of the breed Jack Russell Terrier is famous Trump is a fact known to every English breeder. But, as for the other grandparents, here there is no precise facts. Each researcher puts forward in this regard his own theory. Most scientists agree that the basis for the breed were taken breed terrier, Leyland Terrier and Border. Some people even add to this list beagles, which have certain similarities with the Jack Russell Terrier external signs.
The main emphasis of the Rev. Russell did it in the hunting skills of their dogs. His main task was to bring a pet that would differed calm disposition, easy to get along with other breeds, yet would possess great endurance and aggression against the beast to drive. At the same time, the appearance of his care little. The main emphasis in the external characteristics he did on practicality. Dog breeds have his ears a special form that protect the shell from getting land and mud during the persecution in a hole. The body of the dog just created for practical reasons. It is very flexible and allows the dog to easily maneuver in narrow passages fox. Particular attention was also paid to the power grip, and with a loud voice.
The result obtained by hunting dogs are extremely courage and ingenuity. They rushed without hesitation into the hole, and long pursued foxes, badgers and other small animals. Naturally rock immediately began to gain popularity among hunters. Rumors about the kennel Jack Russell scattered far beyond his native Devon.
In 1904, it was formulated a clear standard for the breed Jack Russell Terrier. Copyrights belong to him Arthur Heinemann, who had inherited the kennel after the death of Russell.
At the same time, the fore start to leave short-legged terrier breeds. Their particular popularity was due to the fact that many hunting grounds have been transformed into agricultural, and those areas where hunting is still allowed to possess a rocky terrain with abundant forests. Such conditions are not suitable for the many hours of chasing the wild game with a pack of long-legged dogs. Gradually, the fashion hunt on foot with small terriers Norns.
In this regard, while Heinemann devoted the creation of short-legged terriers. For this cross-breeding was carried out with the taxes and velshkorgi. But such experiments were carried out only a few times, because puppies received did not meet the standard of the breed.
Low-growing, short-legged terriers have become increasingly popular. But a well-deserved international recognition much later got a dog.
In the 60 years of the last century, several representatives of the breed fell into Avtralii where dogs immediately applauded by local breeders, despite the fact that the hunting fox and badger is not practiced. Loved Jack Russell Terrier for their cheerful nature, playful and charming appearance.
Together, the British and the Australians short-legged terriers Russell still included in the unified standard for the breed. This happened in 1990.
The hosts celebrity
After the popularity of the breed, many famous people want to buy a puppy breed Jack Russell Terrier. Among them were celebrities such as Michael Douglas, Carey, Jim Carrey and many others. The most famous owner of the dogs of this breed was Prince Charles.
COUNTRY OF DEVELOPMENT: Australia.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD: 08.10.2012.
UTILIZATION: A good working Terrier with ability to go to ground. An excellent companion dog.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Jack Russell Terrier originated in England in the 1800s due to the efforts of the Reverend John Russell. He developed a strain of Fox Terriers to suit his needs for a dog to run with his foxhounds and go to ground to bolt the fox and other quarry from their dens. Two varieties evolved with basically similar Standards except for differences, mainly in height and proportions. The taller, more squarely built dog is now known as the Parson Russell Terrier and the shorter, slightly longer proportioned dog, is known as the Jack Russell Terrier.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length. His smart movement matches his keen expression. Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken.
The overall dog is longer than high, i.e. rectangular. The depth of the body from the withers to the brisket should equal the length of foreleg from elbows to the ground. The girth behind the elbows should be about 40 to 43 cms.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: А lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen, intelligent expression. Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident.
Skull: The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle.
Stop: Well defined but not over pronounced.
Muzzle: The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput.
Lips: Tight-fitting and pigmented black.
Jaws / Teeth: Very strong, deep, wide and powerful. Strong teeth closing to a scissor bite.
Eyes: Small dark and with keen expression. Must not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely. The eyelid rims should be pigmented black. Almond shape.
Ears: Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility.
Cheeks: The cheek muscles should be well developed.
NECK: Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise.
Back: Level. The length from the withers to the root of tail slightly greater than the height from the withers to the ground.
Loin: The loins should be short, strong and deeply muscled.
Chest: Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance from the ground, enabling the brisket to be located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm. Point of sternum clearly in front of the point of shoulder.
TAIL: May droop at rest. When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears.
Shoulders: Well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle.
Upper arm: Of sufficient length and angulation to ensure elbows are set under the body.
Forelegs: Straight in bone from the elbows to the toes whether viewed from the front or the side.
Forefeet: Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in nor out
General appearance: Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder.
Stifles (Knee): Well angulated.
Hock joints: Low set.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: True, free and springy.
Hair: May be smooth, broken or rough. Must be weatherproof. Coats should not be altered (stripped out) to appear smooth or broken.
Colour: White must predominate with black and/or tan markings. The tan markings can be from the lightest tan to the richest tan (chestnut).
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Ideal Height at the withers: 25 cms to 30 cms.
Weight: Being the equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cms in height, i.e. a 25 cms high dog should weigh approximately 5 kgs and a 30 cms high dog should weigh 6 kgs.
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on its ability to perform its traditional work.
N. B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
From the rest of terrier dogs of this breed as a whole are more balanced behavior. They are gentle and compliant, less bark. Willingly taught everywhere follow the master. Unpretentious and very hardy. In the UK, in the mini-Agility Jack Russell Terrier - true leaders. They love the sport, is pleased to execute commands.
If the dog enough exercise, it is no problem. Jack Russell Terriers have an independent and determined character at the same time they are playful and funny.
In training you need to show patience and perseverance, then there will be positive results.
With respect to children this dog is friendly, especially if they grow together. Russell, however, can be aggressive with other dogs. Therefore it is very important for the early socialization.
You should not lose sight of the fact that it is a dog with a strong hunting instinct and, therefore, tend to get along poorly with small pets, including cats. Especially from him can suffer rabbits and miniature rat.
Jack Russell Terrier should always be in charge. If he is bored, it may start to cause damage to things, to dig the floor, barking, behaving uncontrollably. Dog tedious exercise regularly and give to participate in any competitions.
Despite its small size, it is not handmade dog, but an independent hunter. He likes change of scenery, interesting. This active dog is not suitable for everyone, for example, the elderly will be difficult to deal with it seriously.
Jack Russell Terrier love to bark loudly. In the absence of a proper education, they often show their independent character. To strangers, these dogs are quite wary, and their brethren - aggressively. And, of course, they love to run after cats. Therefore walks should keep pet on a leash and let go only with calm and familiar places. If you live in an apartment, two representatives of the breed, that alone it is better not to leave. They quarrel and come to blows. This quick-tempered dog jealously guarded personal territory and feeds to the master possessiveness.
These pets are very energetic. They need a lot of running and jumping. And when the walk short and uninteresting, the dog will have a good time, chewing things the hosts. In addition, Jack Russell Terrier is very jumpy: if desired, they can jump over a fairly high fence. If a jump fails, remember the experience of ancestors pet and make a tunnel.
In short, let the pet raising their course will not succeed. As a consolation, it may be noted that all the representatives of the breed is very intelligent. They need the intellectual load. They are easy to learn, but at the time of trainings dogs can be stubborn. We must maintain the momentum, alternating between different teams, and use positive reinforcement.
This breed of dog can be kept safely in a country house, and in a city apartment. Provided your stay in the city she should have enough physical activity. The hazardous places (near the highway) Russell should be taken on a leash because, submitting to instinct, he can not disobey the orders of the owner.
Jack wool is of three types: hard, smooth and intermediate. It affects particularly care for it. As a rule, the dog cleans hard mitt, comb, trimming is carried out.
When the pet is living on the street, molt is held twice a year. But the home dog is shedding almost constantly. Prominent white wool is difficult to remove the furniture. So we have to comb the dog. Besides, do it carefully and regularly.
Haired dogs should trimmingovat: pull out dead hair with a special knife. This procedure is quite delicate. Unscripted owner can accidentally damage the skin of the animal, so it is advisable to entrust the work of a professional groomer.
Often it is impossible to bathe. His coat repels dirt and it is not necessary to wash away the natural lubrication. After a walk in the contaminated areas simply wipe paws and place dirt cleaning paper or a damp towel.
Girls need to bathe after the end of estrus. Also, before each show bathe show dogs.
The breed occasionally there are problems with the eyes, diseases of the joints, the heart, as well as epilepsy. But as a rule, pet pretty energetic and strong. Known story of Jack Russell Terrier named Boti. In 1979, the owners went to a three-year expedition. They did not want to leave the pet, so that the dog took with them. She reached the Antarctica and the Arctic, and visited both poles of the earth. The ship Boti amused games in the ball and on the pole was playing catch-up with the penguins. To pitomitsy not frozen, she sewed a special wool coat and knitted cap. Returning to England, Boti was recognized pet year.
Needless to say, as far as the issue of the right content are important education and training. From you brought Jack still a puppy, it depends on how you will be with him is easy and pleasant to live. But if you got the right adult dog, you should not worry much. Correction in education and training can always be done, but you'll need a professional expert and trainer.
Jack Russell should be brought up to the moment when you brought it home. The very first thing - select him his own place. Of course, once he gets used to it, but if you every time he tired fall asleep anywhere, will transfer it to his place, he gradually understands everything. Be sure to buy him toys, "gryzuchek" and other things that he plays and chewed them, and not furniture and shoes. Do not play with Jack hands, otherwise he will get used and will then hurt to chew and bite the hands of the owner. The fact is that in this age there is a change in their teeth and gums are itching, moreover, terriers are very temperamental, and as a child, poorly calculated its strength. Any attempt to bite the hand should be strictly suppressed when the puppy grows up, it will already be accustomed to the fact that the owner can not bite hurt, and you will be respected. So play with your pet just toys.
Jack Russells are very friendly and good dogs, they like flippers with the owner to show their feelings. Do not let them jump on you. It is a bad habit that will remain when the dog is an adult. It is better to accustom her to snuggle sitting or standing on four paws. To do this, come home do not pay attention to his turbulent emotions and meetings, and simply be engaged in the affairs, and then caress him when he was sitting or standing.
Do not let the little Jack to do what you would not like him to do, when he grew up. Do not let him dominate you and members of your family, for example, do not let him growling and biting when he eats. It is impossible for the dog to choose the place that would be protected from the owner, to choose the walks and food and so on. D.
In the process of constant communication will improve relations between Russell and you. If there is a non-standard situation or a problem, it is best to turn to the experts, and indeed, all the questions of training and education must be carried out under the supervision of experts. Any of your mistakes can create a problem for a very long time, sometimes for life.
Before accepting a small Russell in his house, agree with all family members on common rules for training a puppy, all of which will be observed at all times. Immediately arrange: Will allow your puppy to sleep in a chair, sit on the couch, sleeping in the master bed room in which it will start, and what - no. It is unacceptable situation where the mother allows the puppy to sleep in the bed, and my father drives him out. The kid just fall into misunderstanding of the situation: he blamed for what was previously allowed. It is important that in certain situations, the behavior of all the family members were the same. You can not let Jack do something occasionally, on an exceptional basis, in honor of the holiday, from what is usually not allowed. This will help with the first day to establish your dominance over the little terrier. You - the owner, you set the rules. It does not matter whether you allow Jack to sleep on the couch, in fact, nothing wrong with that, raising a puppy - it's your own business.
But with regard to handouts from the table, set a clear rule: NEVER! When the family eats, Jack does not have to turn around under the table and beg. He's so adorable, imploring looks so hungry eyes, how not to give a piece of yum-yum? It can be funny and touching as little Russell. But when he grows up, you get an annoying beggar, revolving underfoot during lunch and barking begging for a treat itself. Besides the fact that the food on our table not only useful, but also harmful to the puppy Jack Russell terrier, to wean from this bad habit is very difficult (though, of course, corrected any behavior), because it is fixed in childhood. Details about feeding the puppy read here.
Raising a puppy, determine where it will be in bed. It should not be on the aisle, near a heating duct, on the draft. The location should be away from the door, so that when you leave, Jack saw the door that you came out and did not try to go after you. And in general, give your puppy the right choice. He will settle down to sleep where they feel comfortable. Watch for them and put it in the house or sofa is the place that he oblyubuet to sleep.