Sheltie

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Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

These cute dogs are very popular. They have developed great performance, and a host of other qualities that make them great loyal companions.

Sheltie dog breed can be found immediately to their original appearance. His color, thick hair, and a number of other outward signs much like sheltie collie, only represent a significantly smaller version. They reach the withers no more than 40 centimeters. Also, dogs of this breed can boast an extraordinary mind, a good learning and devotion. They get along well with children.

This dog is not just a pet, but a real family. Sheltie gets along great with children. It will protect and defend them at any cost. And thanks to the playful and lively temperament incredibly energetic dog could easily replace baby mate games. However, setting the stage for sheltie, it should be remembered that although the dog is not very demanding on the living conditions, she loves to be the center of attention and will attract him by any means.

It is like those great shepherds of the rainy Scotland, but rather to Shetland, from which comes the name of the breed. On the islands the main task was to guard Sheltie large herds of sheep and ponies, which are diluted with the local farmers. This activity was more familiar to the ancestors Sheltie. It was a small dog with a short wavy hair. Sheltie they differed from the shape of the eye, tail and slightly inferior to them in size.

Features that have the modern representatives of the breed, were the result of mixing the blood with other breeds. Just to say with what is impossible today. But, as the island Scotland is quite an isolated country, it can be said that the new blood in breeding Shelties appeared from dogs imported from other parts of Europe. Many scientists agree on the fact that other species caught on the island with foreign fishermen who sailed in huge quantities from Scandinavia, Greenland and other northern countries. Fishermen imported into the territory of Shetland their pets, which as a result remain in the islands and mixed with local breeds.

For example, many features of the exterior Sheltie allow us to trace their direct relationship with the northern laykoobraznymi dogs. This may indicate a particular form of the tail and ears ever raised. In addition, some researchers argue that the blood Spitz is also present in the rock.

As for the small size, they can be explained by the geographical aspect of the development of the breed. Small island on which Sheltie watching large herds is not particularly popular among wolves. Therefore, a need for a fierce and fearless bodyguards were not. The shepherds were taken small dogs, who were required to keep the flock together, while not requiring special care and feeding.

But over time, even for such old rocks fell on hard times. In the XIX century, many farmers have begun to expand their holdings. Together with them, greatly increases the number of livestock. Small Sheltie, because of their size, could not hold back a huge herd that gradually led to their replacement by larger rocks. Losing popularity, the breed gradually began to decline. So much so that the sheltie practically disappeared from the islands. As always, the situation corrected lovers. Local breeders have begun to actively restore the breed. In the early twentieth century, it was organized by the club of "Scotland". They strongly popularized the breed. Their pets occupy an honorable prizes and awards at prestigious exhibitions. By 1914, fans have created a breed of English Shetland Sheepdog Club, which united breeders from all over England. A year later came the first standard Shetland sheepdogs.

Quite interesting is the fact that the first representatives of the breed sheltie, largely different from dogs Collie, though the blood in the last selection and use. Similarities English breeders sought specifically. Their main aim was to create not an original breed, miniature collie copy that would conquered the hearts of audiences at various exhibitions.

Multiple infusions of blood of different lines Collie led to the breed that you will get a significant departure from the officially accepted standard. It is for this reason that in 1948 the standard has been redrafted and re-issued.

After that, the popularity of sheltie in England grew incessantly. Every year their numbers at shows was growing all the time. This trend has remained unchanged for many years, even despite the fact that the Shetland Sheepdog never won at the most prestigious exhibitions of England - Crufts. They are inferior in popularity only Collies and Dobermanns.

Pretty much we have done for the development of Shetland sheepdogs and American breeders. Once in the United States in the early twentieth century, the breed has become very popular and a lot of fans among American dog handlers. The most active of these breeders even Federica Fry founded the American Association Sheltie, which originated in the late 20s. The result of effort sets Sheltie breeders growth was increased by several centimeters. In the US, this form was considered more elegant and correct. As a result, it created a separate American Standard, which, in fact, divided into two separate Sheltie line.

Despite such a huge hype that sheltie raised around the world, to the territory of Russia, they started to fall only in the late 90s. The first Shetland Sheepdog who stepped on our land, bore the nickname Ringo. It was a great dog with excellent pedigree, imported from Czechoslovakia. He impressed the Russian dog handlers, and then there was a massive importation of shelties from Germany, England and Finland.

Today the breed has gathered quite a lot of fans like we have at home and far beyond its borders.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

Standard FCI № 088 (30.05.1989)

OVERALL IMPRESSION:
small, long-haired working dog, very beautiful, free from clumsiness and brutality. Silhouette is symmetrical so that no part appears disproportionate. Lush fur, lush mane and collar, beautifully shaped head with a sweet expression.

CHARACTERISTICS: Alert, soft, intelligent, strong and lively dog.

Temperament: thirsty and understanding of its owner, reserved towards strangers, never nervous.

Head and Skull:
noble head, when viewed from above or from the side has the shape of a long blunt wedge, tapering from ear to nose. The width of the skull is in the right proportion to the length of the skull and muzzle. Everything in general must be assessed in relation to the size of the dog. Skull flat, moderately wide between the ears, occipital protuberance not prominent. Cheeks flat, smooth transition into well rounded muzzle. Skull and muzzle of equal length, dividing point - the inner corner of the eye. The top line of skull parallel to top-line of muzzle, with slight but a distinct transition from forehead to muzzle. Nose, lips and stroking the lips are black. The characteristic expression is due to a perfect harmony between the skull and the face, shape, color and placement of eyes, correct position and put your ears.

Muzzle / bite:
symmetrical jaws, exactly fashioned, strong, with well-developed chin. Lips tightly closed. Teeth sound, with excellent, uniform and complete scissor bite, ie upper teeth gap comes before the lower teeth and set square to the jaws. The full set of 42 properly placed teeth highly desirable.

Eyes:
medium size, slanting, almond-shaped. Dark brown except dogs color "Merle" in which one or both eyes may be blue or blue flecked.

Ears:
small, moderately wide at the base, on the scalp located sufficiently close to each other. At rest, they are laid back; in a state of alertness directed forward, semi-erect with forward curved corners

NECK:
muscular, well arched, of sufficient length to give head proudly put it.

FOREQUARTERS:
shoulders well laid back. Withers split only the spine, shoulder blades lie obliquely in order to provide a place desired vault ribs. Of shoulder joint well angulated. Shoulder blades and about the same length. The distance from the ground to the elbow equals the distance from the elbows to the withers. Seen from the front the forelegs are straight, muscular and symmetrical, with good bone. The pasterns are strong and flexible.

BODY:
slightly longer on the joints of shoulder to point of buttock than the height at the withers. Chest deep, going down to the elbows. Ribs well sprung, the bottom half of converging close in order to allow the forearms and shoulders to move freely. Back straight, light lumbar convexity, cereals with a gradual slope.

HINDQUARTERS:
thighs broad and muscular, thigh bones are part of the pelvic right angle. Stifles well angulated, hocks are well formed, with a pronounced angle, low-lying, strong. Hocks straight when viewed from behind.

FEET: Oval with thick pads, toes arched and serried

TAIL:
set low, gets, at least to the hock, richly covered with hair and is slightly curved upwards. The motion can be slightly raised, but never above the topline. In no case do not cracked.

MOVEMENT:
flexible, smooth and graceful with drive from the hindquarters, allowing to cover a large space with a minimum of effort. Amble, intersecting or swaying motion or linked, hoduleobraznye movement up and down is very undesirable.

HAIR:
double, exterior top coat consists of a long, hard and straight hair. The undercoat is soft, short and dense. Mane and frill very curvy. The forelegs well-pubescent. Hind legs above the hock joint strongly pubescent, below hocks are covered sufficiently short and smooth hair. The hair on the muzzle is short. Short-haired specimens highly undesirable.

COLOUR:
- Sable color: pure colors or shades from light gold to rich Makagon, with shades should be pronounced. Wolf and gray colors are undesirable.
- Tricolor: deep black body of predominantly succulent red-brown markings.
- Blue Merle: clear silvery blue, with black specks and marble. Juicy red-brown markings preferred, but their absence is allowed. Large black markings, slate-gray or rusty plaque on top coat and undercoat are highly undesirable. The overall impression should be determined by the blue.
- Black and white or black with red and brown colors are also recognized. White may be (except for color black with red-brown) stain on the forehead, neck, chest, frill, legs and tip of the tail of the presence of all or several of these white marks should be given priority (except for black to red-brown); the absence of these markings not to be penalized.
White spots on body highly undesirable.

GROWTH:
The ideal height at the withers: Males - 37 cm; bitches - 35.5 cm.

The deviation in the rate of more than 2.5 cm is highly undesirable.

LIMITATIONS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault, the evaluation of which should be in exact proportion to its degree.

NOTE:
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Character

Характер: 

Living a dog of this breed is 12-15 years. Educating need to deal with, because character is formed at a very early age and will depend on the characteristics of the life of the owner. Sheltie considered noisy guards - uninvited guests have a pet cause a backlash that will manifest itself in a loud leaping barking. But this trait comes from incorrect education - need to instill the dog from childhood that 2-3 short voice notation is sufficient to notify the owner about the arrival of a stranger. Help and training of the team, "the voice." Sheltie easily teachable because of the peculiarities of formation of rocks - the Shepherd derived specifically for the protection of herds and close contact with the shepherds. Representatives of this breed love to party games, which will include all the owners and other pets. Acknowledge and listen Sheltie always one master, who must establish its credibility with the appearance in the puppy home. To bring up the baby should be, because the basic settings dictated by the leader, the owner, will affect the character and habits of a pet in the future.

These dogs are affectionate but delicate - they are always ready to play and frolic, if the owner wants them to, but if it is busy - can expect a manifestation of attention for a long time. However, at this moment of their best to clean up the wires - curious creatures will climb in every corner of the house and enjoy pogryzut stray cable. Habits of the breed touching - some individuals are able to "smile", others - fun wash, rubbing his foot muzzle. Watch these pets - a pleasure. Shelties Make the necessary physical and intellectual load - and you get umneyshuyu, intelligent and noble dog is admired by everyone around you. Check-important advantage of the Terriers - their size. But it's a hassle for the owner. Let's speak about the proper care and maintenance of the terrier that your dog was always on top! We strongly recommend to pay close attention to the Shih Tzu. This is a fantastic dog who envy any neighbor! Photo and video - here. Livable Sheltie well relate to kids of all ages, though at first you may notice some wariness and caution inherent in the breed.

But after a couple of months you will be able to observe the extraordinary dedication and love between your pet and child. Shetland sheepdogs are pleased to be worn for hours on a lawn that will entertain your kids at the same time, these dogs are not aggressive and quite comfortable with the attention. But warned the child that it is necessary to respect appeared in the house pet - noble creature will not tolerate excessive tedium and will not allow themselves "to torture." In general, in the Shetland Sheepdog is no pugnacity and combativeness that allows the dog to coexist with cats and dogs. If the puppy grows with the kitten, meowing the clump will become a companion dog and best friend for life. Development of the representatives of this breed occurs harmoniously and naturally, if a family has more dogs - Sheltie sociable and quickly adapt to the rules of "the pack."

Care and maintenance

Caring for a puppy sheltie does not cause much trouble to owners who have managed to master the basic skills needed to pet he was always nice and clean. For dogs that are accustomed to puppyhood to hygiene practices, then calmly react to the actions of the host associated with the care of their body.

How to care for hair?

The first thing you should pay attention every day - coat, which serves as an indicator of the health of the dog. Sometimes owners shorn wool sheep dogs, the house was clean. But some breeders are convinced that as a result of this procedure in the body can be broken pet hormonal balance. Care sheltie, its content includes regular bathing with shampoo. If the pet's body does not produce the characteristic smell, it is enough to wash it once every three months. As for the conventional shower without the use of detergents in the hot season, you can refresh your pet on a daily basis, as the breed is very fond of water.

Since the skin is too sensitive sheltie, try not to overdo it with the combing. One to three combing a week will be enough to pet looked neat. In periods of intensive molting hair can be combed daily. It is interesting that, despite the long hair, the undercoat of dogs rarely strays into mats. To care for her need to acquire a rare and fine-toothed comb. Require special attention "trousers" and tail, as well as the wool in the ears and collar. Combing thick hair should be gradually, layer by layer, trying to reach the skin. This approach simultaneously provides high-quality dog ​​massage.

Caring for eyes and ears

Every morning, the eye pupil inspect and remove the selection with a soft cloth dampened with a camomile tea or boiled water. Normal allocation should be lean and transparent jelly, but if they become purulent and abundant, it is likely the dog's eyes are inflamed and require treatment. Periodically inspect your ears and remove accumulations of dirt, use a cotton swab or ear stick. First clean the outer ear, and only then tidy curls ear. Generally, this procedure is applied once in two to three weeks, but with vigorous seroobrazovanii it may be carried out more frequently.

Caring for teeth and claws

Dog's teeth should be cleaned once or twice a week. In addition to the brush, it is desirable to buy toothpaste for dogs, then there is no fear that the pet is accidentally swallow it. If the teeth formed on the stone, it can only be removed in a veterinary clinic with a special tool or ultrasound. To trim the claws must be purchased clippers for dogs such as "guillotine", since the use of conventional scissors pet can cause pain. In order not to hurt the blood vessel, it is necessary to withdraw from about 1-2 mm and only then cut the nail. The procedure should be carried out 2-3 times a month.

A place to relax

Before the advent of a puppy in the house owner should think about a sleeping place for him. It is important that it was not in the draft, the fireplace or near the battery. It is impossible to place the dog in a room with tiled or cement floor. As a lounger mattress can be purchased, a house or a regular litter. What matters is that place for rest it was always clean.

Walking and exercise

Walking their adult sheltie should be at least twice a day. At the same time the duration of walking should be a couple of hours. In inclement weather, you can walk less, to a pet is not easy. During walks Encourage your dog to move more - run and jump. Thanks to the good physical exercise it for many years to retain excellent physical shape and good health.

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

Sheltie, of course, they are different, but in general they are quite timid dog. It is important to note two aspects of this timidity:

  • Fear of unknown phenomena (transport, crowd noise, etc.).
  • Painful reaction to criticism of their actions on the part of the trainer ("do not want and do not need").

I emphasize that these are not all shelties, but it's typical behavior. Clearly, if the breed, despite his natural shyness, leaders in global agility, they must have a very serious advantage. These advantages are:

  • High intelligence, learning ability, the desire to learn.
  • Good temperament, physical activity, "drive".
  • Good speed, jumping ability, dexterity.
  • Ability to adapt to a regular "threat", the mobility of the nervous system.

Especially to keep in mind the latter circumstance. If it does not, then the mass use of shelties in competitions on training could be forgotten. My practice sheltie agility training as a coach and the owner is relatively small. But this fact immediately catches the eye. A couple of times I came close to despair in the face of the timidity of his sheltikov adolescent in some situations (for example, a trip on public transport). If the same timidity in that showed a German shepherd, it would be safe to discard the nervous system. A sheltiki ... a couple of trips - and are accustomed to! Of course, you need to understand that the dog stopped paying attention to her earlier scares stimulus or simply "tolerate" his presence. Needless to explain that in all situations pertaining to competitive activities, it is necessary to achieve the first option.

If you notice shyness or fear in the behavior of your sheltika not need to calm him down, cheering. The dog will perceive this as encouraging his "timid" behavior, it will intensify and secure. It should be long and tedious to play a conflict situation ("got on the bus - out"), ignoring the timid behavior as long as the dog does not "get tired of fear" and only encourage it. You can work with a very hungry dog ​​and feed it pieces of food (basic diet is not "feeding") right after landing in transport - if she went there, "proudly and bravely."

All dogs must first train without distractions, and then gradually increase the noise level. The same approach is good for the Sheltie, but it requires more steps at the "ladder of interference." If we were talking about the German shepherd, then as interference come to mind right away shots, the presence of other dogs, cats - in general, something potent. In different test includes exercises with the dog located among several strangers. But it is rather intended to test the dog captive breeding and too vicious animals. With the Sheltie is extremely important just to teach him to perform elementary commands among strangers - ordinary passers-by. Equally significantly changed regularly space activities. Accordingly, the owner of two tips for beginners: from childhood to train the puppy to the presence and touch of strangers, to walk in different places, are gradually becoming more and more crowded and noisy. Accustomed to the standard for the future use of the dog, irritants, if it comes to preparing for a competition, it is recorded on the tape to the crowd noise, the camera flash, etc.

Until now, we were talking about a situation where already otdressirovanny in a situation "without interference" Sheltie loses efficiency, afraid of something. Now how generally better to teach a dog of this breed. That is vesprotsess dog training will be divided into three stages:

  1. Education (dog gets an idea of ​​what it should do in response to a given signal the trainer).
  2. Training (dog learns to execute a command, even when you do not want).
  3. Improvement (finishing skills "to shine" in quality and rate of performance). 

A bit of theory.

In preparing the dogs in each of these stages can be used both identical and different training methods. Let's talk about some of them.

The owner is usually very difficult to internally agree that the dog should not be punished for misconduct. In St. Petersburg - Leningrad Soviet era, before enrolling in a training group for owners of dogs of service breeds attended theoretical lessons and exams of the program "amateur breeders" and "tamer-lover" (in common parlance - "technical minimum"). Twenty-five years ago, I took the exam for the "technical minimum" in one of the inter-Kennel Club. I remember one answer intelligent lady - university professors. The first question is: "Unsolicited communication in the dog." There were formed since the learning process unnecessary communication conscious dogs. For example, a dog carrying aportirovochny object at this time it has fallen bricks. Junk bond formed as a result of which the dog is afraid aportirovat. Apparently, the woman missed the lecture, so, blushing deeply and lowered lashes, she said: "Well, I think the relationship with any stray dogs ...". But in a lecture dedicated to the second question - working team, "Come" - the lady is clearly present. I was very accented read this lecture, as there were many dogs that the owners were caught at the end of a walk almost nets, and then punished. Dogs even more afraid to approach them and the process "circular", developed further avalanche. So I, as they say, "drove nails" in the minds of students, many times clearly repeating the same thing: "If a dog came up to you at once, or not at all came up, and you caught her, then! Do not be nervous, do not worrying ". And so many times. Often such lectures most bloodthirsty and carnivorous savvy listeners asked: "What if I do not he caught the dog and help a friend, then you can be nervous and jittery ?!". I further explained that in all these cases, even if the fault of the freedom-loving animal, you are late for work and lost the award, it is still necessary to smooth and calm voice to praise the dog. The lady at the lecture clearly was, she said quotations. When the tenth time, she repeated: "Do not be nervous, do not worry", I broke down and asked, "What do you want?". The lady lost in thought, then brightened and blurted out: "We have a steady, calm voice ... to punish the dog!". The difficult task of standing in front of the trainer - to win a stable and natural psychology.

Traditionally, preference for training dogs to give different options, close to the contrast method.

Classical training.

Classical training is based on a combination of positive reinforcement and punishment dog behavior emanating mainly from the trainer. Positive reinforcement - this is what the dog wants to achieve, the penalty - something that the dog wants to avoid. In other words, positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of repetition reinforced by behavior, and reduces the probability of punishment. Immediately say, that there is a significant difference between the different kinds of punishment. It is that in the same situation, the dog can still change the behavior so as to avoid this effect, and in another "penalty" occurs after the behavior, nothing can change. For example, if the dog chews on a sofa in the absence of the owners, the effective punishment would be the impact of the wall stun collar ("shocker") exactly at the moment of action observed with the help of video equipment and the ineffective "punishment" - the impact of the trainer after returning home. I'll note that just gave an illustration, but not affect the call Sheltie shocker; below is an example of more suitable for this breed. A similar difference exists between positive reinforcement and encouragement. Positive reinforcement should be submitted as soon as possible after the action; while promoting uncritically, his task - to raise the emotional tone of the dog.

When learning the traditional way a dog works mainly in order to avoid punishment.

Motivational training.

Lately, fashion has become quite motivational branch classical training. Several changing the ratio of positive and negative factors in dog training, this training option still keeps coming from the impact of the trainer, which is trying to avoid a dog that reduces the effectiveness of the training. Even if such effects are called gentle word "correction", the essence will not change. Fear kills the idea! And the independent thinking of the dog (at the right hierarchical relationship with the trainer, as discussed below) is harmful only if you really take the time to quickly otdressirovat dog.

For us, the important feature of this approach is the widespread use of a variety of baits - food, toys and others.

Training using positive reinforcement.

In the last decade in the world of training, a new powerful current. Conventionally, it can nazvatdressirovkoy using positive reinforcement (PP). The point of the training: dog misbehavior is ignored, and the right is encouraged. The idea here is that the wrong behavior without getting positive reinforcement, "melt", and the right - increases. Dog running in the first place in order to achieve positive reinforcement ... A variety of "clicking on the rump to get fit" and jerking the leash unacceptable. It applies only to such punishment, which does not identify with the dog handler. Or "negative punishment" - it does not portend anything bad dog, and is expressed in the fact that the dog deprived of something pleasant.

Negative information in the training method of positive reinforcement.

It is also possible negative information from the handler to the dog. Some well-known trainers once the team negative information, some - in the second phase of dog training (training phase). Some do not use negative signal information at all. There is also the option of using two levels (and the two teams!) The negative information. First level - the team (for example, "no"), which is in no way due. Just a dog knows that after this command will not see positive reinforcement and should look for another behavior, because behavior prior to the team 'no' is always ignored trainer. The second level - the team (for example, "no") is due to the cessation of (usually temporary) employment, while working method of positive reinforcement, usually causes the dog a big disappointment. If you work, using the signals for both levels of negative information, then you need to use two different commands, such as "no" and "impossible." Stress that both options have nothing to do with the team due to a punishment (or so-called "prohibiting command"), whose action is due to fear.

Operant method.

In domestic and foreign literature, positive reinforcement is associated most often with a method of operant learning. It is not necessary. Operant method in its pure form involves the reinforcement or punishment (positive or negative) of their own random acts dog. That is, if we train the dog to go to a place and go to bed, then the sequence of our actions will be such. Not giving any commands, we give a hungry dog ​​to understand: "I have food, try to make money!" And wait. When the dog will turn his head to the side a place - Reinforce (outside of this article fascinating conversation about the ways of reinforcement). Get the dog to consistently turned her head in the right direction. Cease to support this change (when we want the dog something more, this is called "rise of criteria"). Wait until the dog will make a step in the right direction. Reinforce until it becomes stable. Reinforce then two steps. And so, as long as the dog begins to itself (still without a team!) Clearly and quickly run down and go. Only when the quality and speed of skill completely satisfied (in other words, a further increase in the criteria is not expected) and the dog to "get" you, again and again offering this behavior to earn positive reinforcement, it is time to enter a command. It is called - "take Stimulus behavior under control." In this period we have positive reinforcing the dog only if the dog goes to the place on the team; independent behavior is now ignored. The process itself is simple. A common mistake beginners - premature inclusion of team work. It is important to understand that an increase in criteria after taking behavior under the Stimulus control - an enormous burden on the nervous system of the dog. For the trainer it - two stages of development of skills and for the dog - two different skill that you need to perform on the same signal.

Method natalkivaniya with positive reinforcement.

The method of positive reinforcement can also be combined with natalkivaniem, understood broadly. Natalkivaniepredpolagaet use of a variety of tips: target gestures (not those which can later play the role of commands), lint mechanics - all that without causing fear among the dogs, allowing it to quickly understand what is required of her. Quite common combination of methods: the beginning of mining complex skills prompted smoothly into the operant training. In the US popular ratio of 3: 1, proposed the famous (and very effective) Canadian specialist in agility Susan Garrett. That is three times use a hint, then try without it - and so until then, until you get. The author of these lines, training all-rounders with dogs, came to similar conclusions. Just as with "pure" operant method, we introduce the command only if the criteria for raising a skill over and fully formed. Advantages of the method natalkivaniyaochevidny - training is much faster. The lack of - was not "learning to learn". When the "clean" method of operant trainer spends a lot of time practicing the skills first, and each dog must be taken quickly, as it has already entered into the taste and used to guess the desire of the trainer, offering new and new behaviors. If you use natalkivaniya dog waiting for clues that may hinder the fine grinding skill or skill correction performed at a considerable distance from the trainer.

Command method with positive reinforcement.

Finally, the batch process can also be used in conjunction with positive reinforcement. In this context, using the term "team", I mean the fact that at training, we just use the command - and that it adapts to the rest of the dog's behavior. It does not use techniques that cause fear in the dog, not the penalty associated with the trainer. This method provides the fastest results (method of using positive reinforcement) and can be used for skills training home training, does not require special accuracy and therefore increase the criteria.

Any approach that uses a method of positive reinforcement, can significantly extend the range of dogs, potentially capable of effective training, it can significantly reduce the age of onset of dog training and provides a number of other important advantages. So many skills can be fully formed by such a system.

Training using positive reinforcement has a significant drawback. If you have undertaken to train a dog using positive reinforcement, even one skill executed by traditional can (although not certain) to spoil the rest of the preparation. A couple of years ago I was "at war" with a young and capable tamer, 4-5 year old owner of the bitch that looks a bit like Kelpie. When she appeared in my group, the dog was apparently "crushed" the girl scolded her for error and the animal work to the rhythm of a funeral procession. The transition to positive reinforcement brought its fruits - the dog began to work cheerfully and recklessly, though admits a natural for this stage of training errors. Conductor seems to have understood that it is necessary to wait patiently until the number of these errors is reduced by itself. After some time, the pace of work of the dog fell sharply again. By blitz survey found: the girl became home to ensure that the dog ate near the cat and the cat does not take food. It achieves rough. What does it affect the relationship with the dog training club, did not understand. I had a long time to explain that if we chose to work with positive reinforcement, then under what circumstances negative reinforcement should not come from the conductor.

The use of punishment.

Problems with learning positive reinforcement arise when unwanted dog behavior "self-reinforcing". For example, a puppy chewing on household items, and receives from it a lot of fun. In these cases (in each - in their own way) to be applied punishment. But the exercise is selected so that the source of the punishment was not the owner! For example, in our case will spray nibbling items with something unpleasant to the taste of dog (selection of the material is different for each dog). This way you can even develop a conditioned reflex: if the bad taste to combine learning with a neutral smell a weak concentration, the later will be sufficient to use only the smell.

Stages of Dog Training.

The training phase.

At the stage of learning the vast majority of dog breeds shelties suitable method of positive reinforcement - a variant is selected depending on the purpose of training and specific skills. The dog have to work fun and joy.

At the same time you need to teach the dog to extraneous stimuli - not yet demanding performing skills.

It is also important to begin to teach your dog to the absolute domination of the trainer. Most of this work is necessary for the next stage, but the concept of "vozhatskoy" the role of the trainer needs to be formed in advance.

Step training.

In step training, depending on the purpose of preparing a dog, taking into account the individual characteristics of a particular trainer and the animal might use different methods.

The ultimate goal of phase - failsafe command execution trainer.

The dog must necessarily recognize the trainer leader of "mikrostai." In the case of a sheltie, do not reach this psychological pressure. It is best to comply with the laws of the pack hierarchy - they are described in detail, for example, in the book of John Fisher, "What thinks your dog."

Here is a short list of "vozhatskih rights and duties." a list drawn up on the basis of experience of the author, the book Fisher, as well as articles Nelly Ascension "To beat or not to beat" (the author refers to Ed Frauli "How to handle the dominant dog").

  • The leader is the first and may take additional food from the lower members of the pack;
  • The leader sleeps in the best location; in his place nobody sleeps;
  • The leader is the first to lead the pack;
  • The leader ensures that flock to stick together;
  • The leader decides whether to fight a pack, and he should be the first to defend it;
  • The leader decides to accept the alien and defends housing;
  • The leader decides what he will do;
  • The leader begins to hunt.

In short, the owner must observe the following rules in the hierarchy to "pack" to take rank above your dog:

  • dog should eat after the owner, never give pieces beggar if begging continues - is a symptom of the wrong attitude;
  • the trainer should deliberately dropping pieces of food on the floor and take them back, not allowing the dog to pick up;
  • all the food the dog must "earn" - at least for the execution of a simple command (in preparation for the work with a high degree of independence - such pastushechey service - some authors recommend as part of the food to hide the dog to "hunt");
  • the dog should not be higher than the trainer (in the literal sense of the word: if he lay down on the sofa, the place of the dog - on the floor); effective early to determine the position of the food "lie" (the "low" in the presentation of the dog);
  • handler, not the dog, first passes through any door; Anticipate dog when climbing stairs - dog needs a bottom-up approach to the trainer and not vice versa;
  • dog should not freely go to "pass on" the dog should not sleep on our chairs and beds, but the trainer should periodically sit in her place; When we walk around the house, the dog must yield to us the way;
  • the dog must allow the owner to do with them all; should be regularly squeeze, feel the dog bite simulate inspection, temperature, etc .; Gay behavior is encouraged food, while resisting the trainer does not retreat, but does not show haste, ensuring its use of food incentives. The handler must not let the dog "liberties" in greeting. Innocent biting posing paws Jumping on the trainer at the meeting, the dogs are often attempts to improve their hierarchical rank in the "family-pack".

Owner Sheltie difficult to realize the need to dominate such a sweet creature. Of course, even a dominant Sheltie does not threaten the life of the host. Just Shelties, who considers himself the leader, is not consistently execute commands of the trainer. Author normally behave with dogs dominant automatically. But it was necessary to overcome a psychological barrier to take vozhatskie inclinations 32 cm Sheltie seriously ... Doggie perfectly studied and worked happily and cheerfully, but - when he wanted to. Work to establish the correct hierarchical relationships required whenever there is a need for the accuracy or reliability of work.

With respect to the majority of the use of mechanical impact Sheltie contraindicated at this stage. Several of the group Sheltie author prepared exclusively positive reinforcement (Payneri, Korn Koled, Pup Louis, Violetta Walter) have achieved considerable success in competitions of the highest rank - right up to the world championships. By performing simple rules of hierarchical behavior described above can be solved by obedience to the stability problems encountered by most dogs.

For individuals with an exceptional desire to lead is sometimes necessary to use a light mechanical action as negative reinforcement. For example, at the time of aggression on another dog, the trainer can gently pinch the dog's coat. I stress that at the moment of aggression, and not after. That is, the trainer must anticipate and prevent the dog's behavior. Ideally, the trainer must, anticipating possible aggression of the dog, its pre-ban (team or special signal). If the dog starts to aggression - use positive reinforcement, and if it starts - that negative reinforcement "vozhatskogo character." Exposure in this case does not mean, "Oh well, then I will avenge you!". The meaning of influence: "I remind the leader - I am! Only I can decide who attacks the flock and not some Sheltie".

Stage improvement.

Step perfection is only required in the preparation of a sheltie any kind of productive activity, eg competitions on training, use as pastushechey dog ​​helper invalid. This is usually a very long stage. Typically, it is based only on the positive reinforcement and serves for the fine grinding skills further enhance execution speed, etc.

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